grain(redirected from against the grain)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Idioms, Wikipedia.
grain,in weights and measures: see English units of measurementEnglish units of measurement,
principal system of weights and measures used in a few nations, the only major industrial one being the United States. It actually consists of two related systems—the U.S.
..... Click the link for more information. .
grain,in agriculture, term referring to the caryopsis, or dry fruitfruit,
matured ovary of the pistil of a flower, containing the seed. After the egg nucleus, or ovum, has been fertilized (see fertilization) and the embryo plantlet begins to form, the surrounding ovule (see pistil) develops into a seed and the ovary wall (pericarp) around the
..... Click the link for more information. , of a cereal grassgrass,
any plant of the family Poaceae (formerly Gramineae), an important and widely distributed group of vascular plants, having an extraordinary range of adaptation. Numbering approximately 600 genera and 9,000 species, the grasses form the climax vegetation (see ecology) in
..... Click the link for more information. . The term is also applied to the seedlike fruits of buckwheatbuckwheat,
common name for certain members of the Polygonaceae, a family of herbs and shrubs found chiefly in north temperate areas and having a characteristic pungent juice containing oxalic acid. Species native to the United States are most common in the West.
..... Click the link for more information. and of certain other plants and is used collectively for any plant that bears such fruits. The food content of the seeds (as they are commonly called) is mostly carbohydrate, but some protein, oil, and vitamins are also present. Grain, whole or ground into meal or flour, is the principal food of man and of domestic animals. The seeds of most grains grow in concentrated clusters that are gathered efficiently by modern mechanical harvesting machines (see combinecombine
, agricultural machine that performs both harvesting and threshing operations. Although it was not widely used until the 1930s, the combine was in existence as early as 1830.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Grain is easy to handle and, because of its low water content, can be stockpiled and stored for long periods, unlike other starch foods (e.g., the potato). Grains, both living and stored, are attacked by a variety of insect pests (e.g., the corn borer, locust, and grasshopper) and by smuts, rusts, blights, rots, and other diseases of plantsdiseases of plants.
Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Although the term disease is usually used only for the destruction of live plants, the action of dry rot and the rotting of harvested crops in storage or transport is similar to the rots
..... Click the link for more information. . The principal grain crops, in order of total world output, are wheatwheat,
cereal plant of the genus Triticum of the family Poaceae (grass family), a major food and an important commodity on the world grain market. Wheat Varieties and Their Uses
..... Click the link for more information. , ricerice,
cereal grain (Oryza sativa) of the grass family (Graminae), probably native to the deltas of the great Asian rivers—the Ganges, the Chang (Yangtze), and the Tigris and Euphrates.
..... Click the link for more information. , Indian corncorn,
in botany. The name corn is given to the leading cereal crop of any major region. In England corn means wheat; in Scotland and Ireland, oats. The grain called corn in the United States is Indian corn or maize (Zea mays mays).
..... Click the link for more information. (or maize), oatsoats,
cereal plants of the genus Avena of the family Poaceae (grass family). Most species are annuals of moist temperate regions. The early history of oats is obscure, but domestication is considered to be recent compared to that of the other grains—perhaps c.2500 B.
..... Click the link for more information. , barleybarley,
annual cereal plant (Hordeum vulgare and sometimes other species) of the family Poaceae (grass family), cultivated by humans probably as early as any cereal.
..... Click the link for more information. , and ryerye,
cereal grain of the family Poaceae (grass family). The grain, Secale cereale, is important chiefly in Central and N Europe. It seems to have been domesticated later than wheat and other staple grains; cultivated rye is quite similar to the wild forms and no traces of
..... Click the link for more information. ; together, these grains occupy about half of all the land under crops. All the staple grains were domesticated in the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, and their cultivation was a powerful factor in drawing men into settled communities. Many religious beliefs and rites have been associated with grains; the cereals derive their name from Ceres, the Roman goddess of grain. Grain has been an article of commerce in nearly all civilizations.
See N. L. Kent, Technology of Cereals (1983); Y. Pomerantz, Modern Cereal Science and Technology (1987).
an obsolete unit of weight used in Russian pharmaceutical practice before the introduction of metric units of measure; one grain equaled 62.2 mg. In the British system the grain—commercial, apothecaries’ and troy (used in weighing precious metals)—is equal to 64.8 mg.
(1) The fruit of cereal grasses and the seed of legumes.
(2) The product of grain production. Grain is one of the principal human food products, a raw material for the flour, groats, beer, starch, alcohol, and mixed feed industries, and a concentrated feed for farm animals. The products of grain processing are used in the baking, macaroni, and confectionery industries. Grain is the most important part of the state food reserves and an export.
The grain of cereal grasses is a dry, monospermous fruit (caryopsis) that is glabrous in wheat, rye, corn, and the naked forms of barley and oats and tunicate (covered with flowering husks) in oats, barley, rice, and millet. The heaviest part of the grain is the endosperm, from which the most valuable part of flour is obtained during milling. Most of the cells of the grain are filled with starch and protein. The outermost layer of the endosperm—the aleurone layer—is rich in proteins and fat. The layer next to the aleurone contains the most protein. During graded milling the aleurone layer is separated from the grain and discarded, because the human organism does not digest it well. Depending on the dimensions, shape, and location of the starch grains and on the properties and distribution of proteins, the grain may be vitreous, semivitreous, or mealy.
In the lower part of the grain is the seed, the embryo of the future plant. It contains a great deal of protein, fat, sugars, vitamins, and enzymes. During graded milling the seed is removed because it is difficult to crush and because the fat contained in it turns rancid easily and ruins the flour during storage. The exterior of the grain is covered with the fruit and seed shells, which are generally discarded during graded milling. In wheat grain, the weight ratio of the endosperm (in percentages) is 81.1–84.2, of the aleurone layer, 6.8–8.6, of the seed, 1.4–3.2, and of the shells, 3.1–5.6. In oats, the endosperm is 51–61 percent of the total weight of the grain, the aleurone layer, 4–6 percent, the seed, 3–4 percent, the shells, 2–4 percent, and the flowering husks, 20–40 percent.
The mature grain of legumes has no endosperm. It is covered with a seed membrane (skin), under which lies the seed, which consists of meaty cotyledons and the embryonic stock, root, and plumule. In the most common legumes, the shell is 6.4–11 percent of the total weight of the grain, the cotyledons, 87.2–92.5 percent, and the root, stock, and plumule, 1.1–2.5 percent. (See Table 1 for the average chemical composition of grains, given a moisture level of 14 percent.)
|Table 1. Chemical composition of grains (in percent)|
|soft||120||1 7||687||20||1 6|
|Peas||23 4||2 4||53.1||4.7||2.4|
The basic component of grain carbohydrates is starch, whose hydrolysis is very important in the preparation of dough. Cellulose and hemicellulose are part of the composition of the cell walls. Maltose, glucose, and fructose are among the sugars found in grains. The proteins in cereal grass grains are primarily prolamins and glutelins. The principal proteins in wheat are gliadin and glutenin, which form gluten, whose quantity and quality determine the elasticity of the dough and the porosity and volume of the bread. The gluten in rye (which is separated out under special conditions) and of barley (which is not contained in all grades of grain) does not have the valuable physical properties of wheat gluten. The proteins in legumes consist primarily of globulins and a small number of albumins. They are richer than the proteins of the cereal grasses. In most grains, the largest quantity of fats (primarily unsaturated fatty acids) is contained in the seed, but in peanuts and soybeans the fats are concentrated in the cotyledons. Grain ash contains phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, silicon, and other elements (in the form of oxides).
Enzymes are concentrated primarily in the embryo. The most important of them are α-amylase, β-amylase, orglucosidase (maltase), β-fructofuranosidase (invertase), lipase, protease, and catalase. Grain contains numerous vitamins, which are concentrated in the seed and the peripheral layers. Among them are thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), nicotinamide (PP), ascorbic acid (C), and, in germinated grain only, pantothenic acid and the pigment carotene, the source of retinol (vitamin A).
The quality of grain is evaluated on the basis of its freshness, color, odor, taste, acidity, weediness, moisture, character (weight of 1 liter), weight of 1,000 grains, and the cleanliness of the grain stores, which should be free of pests and diseases. In production evaluation (flour milling and baking), vitreousness, ash content, and protein content are often determined. Experimental bread is baked from flour and evaluated (volume of bread produced per 100 g flour and stability of the shape of bread). In the USSR the quality of grain is evaluated according to state standards, and standardized conditions have been established for processing grain. The quality of export grain is graded according to technical specifications.
REFERENCESKretovich, V. L. Biokhimiia Zerna i Khleba. Moscow, 1958.
Koz’mina, N. P.Zerno i produkty ego pererabotki. Moscow, 1961.
Kazakov, E. D.Zernovedenie s osnovamirastenievodstva. Moscow, 1965.
Spravochnik po kachestvu zerna i produktov ego pererabotki. [Compiled by V. T. Tevosian, B. M. Mashkov, and F. I. Biriukov.] Moscow, 1965.
Koz’mina, N. P. Zerno. Moscow, 1969.
E. D. KAZAKOV
a pattern on leather. In manufacturing leather, irregularities remain on the surface of the corium after the removal of the epidermis (which extends somewhat into the corium). These irregularities, together with pores, form the grain. The skin of each species of animal has its characteristic grain, making it possible to distinguish leathers. An artificial grain can be given by embossing a pattern on the leather.
What does it mean when you dream about grain?
Grain represents an opulent harvest and is often symbolic of a good life.
["Pictorial Information Systems", S.K. Chang et al eds, Springer 1980].