agranulocytosis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to agranulocytosis: neuroleptic malignant syndrome

agranulocytosis

(əgrăn'yəlōsītō`sis), disease in which the production of granulated white blood cells by the bone marrow is impaired. Although the disease may occur spontaneously it is usually induced by exposure to antithyroid drugs, sulfonamides, phenothiazines, chemotherapy, and radiation therapies. Granulocytes protect the body against infectious agents; their depletion results in severe respiratory infections, ulceration of the mouth and colon, high fever, and prostration. These symptoms may occur suddenly or over a period of days or weeks. Penicillin is usually the drug of choice to combat the bacterial invasion. Treatment may require bone marrow transplants to start the production of healthy white blood cells. The fatality rate is high (approaching 80%) in untreated cases, and deaths are common even with antibiotic treatment.

Agranulocytosis

 

(also, agranulocytic angina), the absence or drastic reduction of granulocytes in the blood. Agranulocytosis may develop during various infectious diseases, avitaminoses, and diseases of the hematic system and as a result of the direct action of chemicals (benzene), drugs (aminopyrine, sulfanilamides, antibiotics, and others), and ionizing radiation on the bone marrow. Sometimes agranulocytosis results from an allergic reaction and the formation of autoantibodies against the leukocytes. Acute agranulocytosis is characterized by general indisposition, fever, and ulcerations of the skin and mucous membranes, especially of the oral and pharyngeal cavities. The number of neutrophils in the blood diminishes. Recurrent agranulocytosis is most often connected with repeated ingestion of certain drugs or repeated contact with certain chemicals; periods of aggravation and improvement alternate during its course. Treatment includes elimination of the causes; blood transfusions; administration of vitamins of the B group (B2, B6, B12), hormonal preparations (corticotrophic hormones), and antibiotics; and topical treatment of the ulcerative processes. In especially severe cases, treatment calls for transplanting bone marrow. Prophylaxis involves the isolation of the causative agent and elimination of contact with it.

agranulocytosis

[¦a‚gran·yə·lō‚sī′tō·səs]
(medicine)
An acute febrile illness, usually resulting from drug hypersensitivity, manifested as severe leukopenia, often with complete disappearance of granulocytes.
References in periodicals archive ?
PTU should be given cautiously to patients who are taking other medications that may cause agranulocytosis (e.
Maloisel, "Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis or acute neutropenia," Current Opinion in Hematology, vol.
18) Bone marrow biopsies for patients with the additional clinical finding of agranulocytosis show myeloid hypoplasia, mild megakaryocyte hyperplasia, and increased bone marrow plasma cells with circulating plasmacytoid lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, all of which can be helpful in distinguishing cocaine-related versus non-cocaine-related causes of agranulocytosis.
However, because the occurrence of severe adverse effects such as agranulocytosis, it was withdrawal from the market (5).
Agranulocytosis induced by vancomycin in an ESRD patient on CAPD.
These medications have a large number of adverse effects, the commonest being skin rashes, and some are rare like agranulocytosis.
5 mg/dL), an agranulocytosis [absolute neutrophil count (ANC), (3) <0.
Agranulocytosis with tonsillitis associated with methimazole therapy.
Disseminated Aspergillosis and Moniliasis Associated with Agranulocytosis and Antibiotic Therapy.
Versacloz because of the risk of agranulocytosis with clozapine therapy will be available only through a restricted program called the Versacloz Patient Registry, which make sure suitable monitoring of white blood cell and absolute neutrophil count prior to delivery of the next refill of medication.