Ghazali, al-

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Ghazali, al-

(ăl-găzä`lē), 1058–1111, Islamic theologian, philosopher, and mystic. He was born at Tus in Khorasan, of Persian origin. He is considered the greatest theologian in Islam. Al-Ghazali was appointed professor at Baghdad in 1091, but following a spiritual crisis in 1095 he abandoned his career to become a mystic (see SufismSufism
, an umbrella term for the ascetic and mystical movements within Islam. While Sufism is said to have incorporated elements of Christian monasticism, gnosticism, and Indian mysticism, its origins are traced to forms of devotion and groups of penitents (zuhhad
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). After ten years of wandering he settled down to teach in accordance with his new mystical insights, which he formulated very closely to orthodox Islam. Al-Ghazali was the author of several important works; his Destruction of the Philosophers, written just prior to his spiritual crisis, opposes the philosophical method of approaching metaphysics when it contradicts orthodox theology. That position had a great influence on the future of speculative thought in Islam. Al-Ghazali's chief work, The Revival of the Religious Sciences, outlines a complete and orthodox system of the mystical attainment of unity with God. Al-Ghazali is most important for his attempt to reconcile mysticism with orthodox Islam. He was well known in medieval Europe by his Latin name, Algazel.
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Al-Isfahani had a profound impact on al-Ghazzali (d.
Imam al-Ghazzali lists a number of legitimate reasons for practicing contraception, including financial difficulty, emotional or psychological hardship of having many children, and even the preservation of beauty and health.
See Abu Harold Al-Ghazzali, Ihya 'Ulum Al-Din (Cairo, 1356 Hg.
There are arguments for properly spelling the name as al-Ghazzali, but we shall not go into that controversy here.
Significantly, al-Ghazzali, in his attack on rationalism, emphasized that knowledge depends on all three of these sources.
Al-Ghazzali wrote Iljam al-'awam 'an 'ilm al-kalam shortly before he died.
See Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali, al-Hikmat fi makhluqat Allah, ed.
A section of the book is devoted for legal opinions regarding the sanctity of roads and abolition of road blockages with statements quoted from various Sunni and Shiite clergymen such as Sheikh Ibn Al-Qassim, Ibn Rushd, Al-Mawardi, Imam Al-Ghazzali, Imama Malik, Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal, Al-Hilli, Sheikh Yusuf Al-Bahrani, S.
Meanwhile, rationalism has to be part of the salvation agenda, in the path blazed, it is claimed, by Islam's greatest scholarly figure, Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali, b 1058.
1111 Al-Shafii al-Ghazzali died; wrote a treatise on the motion and nature of stars.
53) In contrast to the Isma'ilis and the Arab philosophers, following the Persian Islamic theologian-mystic Abu Harold al-Ghazzali (1058-1111), and classical Muslims mystics, namely 'Ayn al-Qudat Hamadani (1098-1131), (54) Ibn 'Arabi (1165-1240), (55) Mir Damad (1543-1631), (56) Mulla Sadra (c.