alcalde


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alcalde

(ălkăl`dē, Span. älkäl`dā) [Span., from Arab.,=the judge], Spanish official title, in existence at least from the 11th cent. Since the late 19th cent. it has been used for the mayor of a town or village who also acts as justice of the peace. Originally, however, it designated a judge whose scope of jurisdiction varied and who had administrative functions as well. There were, for example, alcaldes de la hermandad (judges attached to the tribunals of the town federations formed to assure public order and safety; see hermandadhermandad
[Span.,=brotherhood], a peacekeeping association of armed individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile. Hermandades are known to have existed as early as the 12th cent.
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) and alcaldes de corte (judges whose jurisdiction extended over the royal residence and the surrounding area). The alcaldes were distinguished from the regidores, whose functions were primarily administrative. In the 14th cent. the corregidores, royal appointees charged with assisting the regidores in their duties, encroached upon the judicial functions of the alcaldes, depriving them of all but minor civil and criminal jurisdiction. Moreover, alcaldes were increasingly chosen by the crown, with only a few towns keeping the right to choose their own alcaldes (these being known thereafter as alcaldes ordinarios). Since the corregidores were often inadequately versed in law, each usually received advice from two trained lawyers, termed alcaldes mayores, who specialized in criminal and civil law, respectively. The office was also instituted in the Spanish colonies, but changed its character. There the alcalde mayor was the administrator of a provincial division usually smaller than that of a corregidor; he also presided over the town ayuntamiento (later known as the cabildocabildo
, autonomous municipal council, the lowest administrative unit in the Spanish government. The institution was especially influential in Spanish America, where it was set up in the early 16th cent.
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). The alcalde ordinario was an elected municipal officer who frequently exercised the powers of mayor and sheriff and was in some villages the sole representative of the law.
References in periodicals archive ?
Crews extinguished one fire at an abandoned home off East First Street only to return less than two weeks later to watch another fire cause significant damage to the structure, Alcalde said.
Para Alcalde, "las mujeres de Zayas manipulan la tradicion dominante para liberarse a si mismas, y hacer de los simbolos de reclusion un instrumento de poder" (112).
Finally, the escribano accompanied his judge or alcalde de barrio on the evening neighborhood patrols (rond as), where in the course of recording any arrests and other judicial actions they occasionally were exposed to life-threatening situations.
Prior to joining Alcalde & Fay, Davenport was on the staff of the late Congressman Gerald Solomon (R-NY), chairman of the House Rules Committee.
When the alcalde himself opened the window to repeat personally the pregon, Urruchu was saying that for a long time he had loved the alcalde's daughter and that he was going to get the witch of Amboto and win this most coveted reward.
Alcalde praised the rapid response by fire and police officials but called it "a very sad day" in Zaragoza.
Taylor is a scholar, attorney, and Notary Public in Sonoyta, Sonora, Mexico, where his ancestor was elected alcalde (mayor) about 1776.
Skye attorney Luis Alcalde adds, "All further allegations are really irrelevant.
Other countries don't allow Americans to saunter in to vote on the local burgomaster or alcalde, and we shouldn't either.
The white officials were themselves under obligation to financial backers who helped them obtain their auctioned offices and supplied goods to them in their turn, and both groups perceived the need to realize as much profit as they could within the limited term of the alcalde mayor.
GRID IRON: Scottish Claymores have named former receivers' coach Vince Alcalde as their new offensive co-ordinator.
The office, in the capital of Lima, is managed by Jose Miguel Alcalde, Chief Country Officer for Chile and Peru.