alkane


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Related to alkane: alkine

alkane

(ăl`kān), any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bondchemical bond,
mechanism whereby atoms combine to form molecules. There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are strong enough to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to be regarded as an
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). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. An alkane is said to have a continuous chain if each carbon atom in its molecule is joined to at most two other carbon atoms; it is said to have a branched chain if any of its carbon atoms is joined to more than two other carbon atoms. The first four continuous-chain alkanes are methanemethane
, CH4, colorless, odorless, gaseous saturated hydrocarbon; the simplest alkane. It is less dense than air, melts at −184°C;, and boils at −161.4°C;. It is combustible and can form explosive mixtures with air.
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, CH4; ethaneethane
, CH3CH3, gaseous hydrocarbon. It is a continuous-chain alkane. As a constituent of natural gas, it is used for fuel. It can be prepared by cracking and fractional distillation of petroleum.
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, C2H6; propanepropane,
CH3CH2CH3, colorless, gaseous alkane. It is readily liquefied by compression and cooling. It melts at −189.9°C; and boils at −42.2°C;.
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, C3H8; and butanebutane
, C4H10, gaseous alkane, a hydrocarbon that is obtained from natural gas or by refining petroleum. It can be liquefied at room temperature by compression. There are two structural isomers of butane.
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, C4H10. Names of continuous-chain alkanes whose molecules contain more than five carbon atoms are formed from a root that indicates the number of carbon atoms and the suffix -ane to indicate that the compound is an alkane; e.g., alkanes with 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their molecules are pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, and decane, respectively. The name of a branched-chain alkane is formed by adding prefixes to the name of the continuous-chain alkane from which it is considered to be derived; e.g., 2-methylpropane (called also isobutane) is thought of as being derived by replacing one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to the second (2-) carbon atom of a propane molecule with a methyl (CH3) group, forming CH3CH(CH3)2. Chemically, the alkanes are relatively unreactive. They are obtained by fractional distillation from petroleum and are used extensively as fuels. The alkanes are sometimes referred to as the methane series (after the simplest alkane) or as paraffins.

alkane

[′al‚kān]
(organic chemistry)
A member of a series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having the empirical formula C n H2 n + 2. Also known as paraffin; paraffinic hydrocarbon.

alkane

a. any saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2
b. (as modifier): alkane series
References in periodicals archive ?
Alkane chairman Roger McDowell said: "This offer enables Alkane shareholders to realise value today in cash for their shares at a significant premium to the recent historical share price, which, in the board's view, has been impacted by negative sentiment towards the energy industry and continued regulatory scrutiny.
Alkanes in the oils are, according to structure, divided into three classes: n-alkanes, branched alkanes and cycloalkanes, their distribution is shown in Figure 2.
chinensis whole plant and parts varied from seasons, however, the seasonal change tendency in alkane concentration of plant parts were different.
This equation has been employed by our research group to fit experimental data for carbon dioxide absorption in linear alkanes (heptane, octane, decane, and dodecane) (Gomez-Daz and Navaza, 2005a) and mixtures of then (Gomez-Daz and Navaza, 2005b).
Although alkanes and aromarics are inert pollutants, we excluded alkanes and aromatic pollutants from the inert classification to maximize differences between chemical property groups.
Such analysis can be performed by packed column or capillary column operations using appropriate apparatus, both procedures having particular advantages, but when the proportion of "non normal" or iso alkane hydrocarbon is high, the latter technique, using "cold on column" injection finds favor, due to inherently greater resolving power.
Alkane Energy, which draws methane gas from former mine workings for industrial use, increased its turnover last year to pounds 7.
Alkane of Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire, has entered into an agreement with A-TEC Anlagentechnik and Pro2 Anlagentechnik to develop a generation facility in Gelsenkirchen in the NordrheinWestfalen region of Germany.
Under the contracts, Alkane will supply 56 megawatt capacity to National Grid during periods of high system demand during the winter period between November 1 and February 28.
Red mulch led to a wax equivalent to that obtained with a black plastic mulch but an alkane profile more like the one with white mulch.
The guidelines are the first output from one of 6 working groups at the SGMF with members drawn from the Swedish Maritime Authority, Norwegian Maritime Authority, Shell, MOL Group, Lloyd's Register, DNV GL, Alkane Marine, and the International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH).
The prospects look good for Alkane and broker SG Securities has set a target price of 181p for the company from its position of 114p.