alkyne


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alkyne

(ăl`kīn), any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (see chemical bondchemical bond,
mechanism whereby atoms combine to form molecules. There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are strong enough to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to be regarded as an
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). Alkynes with one triple bond have the general formula CnH2n−2. In the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) system of chemical nomenclature, the name of an alkyne is derived from the name of the corresponding alkanealkane
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bond). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2.
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 by replacing the -ane alkane suffix with -yne and, if necessary, adding a prefix to indicate the location of the triple bond in the molecule. The IUPAC name of the simplest alkyne, HC≡CH, is thus ethyne, which is derived from ethane. Ethyne is more commonly known as acetyleneacetylene
or ethyne
, HC≡CH, a colorless gas. It melts at −80.8°C; and boils at −84.0°C;. Offensive odors often noted in commercial acetylene are due to impurities. Acetylene forms explosive mixtures with oxygen or air.
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; it is an extremely important starting material in commercial chemical synthesis. The next simplest alkyne is propyne, CH3C≡CH. There are two butynes, 1-butyne and 2-butyne, which are structural isomersisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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 that differ in the location of the triple bond in their molecule. The alkynes are sometimes referred to as the acetylene series, the higher members of the series being named as derivatives of acetylene, e.g., propyne as methylacetylene, 1-butyne as ethylacetylene, and 2-butyne as dimethylacetylene. The usefulness of the alkynes in chemical synthesis is due both to the reactions of the triple bond itself and to the relative acidity of a hydrogen atom bonded to a triply bonded carbon.

alkyne

[′al‚kīn]
(organic chemistry)
One of a group of organic compounds containing a carbon-to-carbon triple bond.
References in periodicals archive ?
The patented technology stems from the discovery that, under proper conditions, copper can quickly and reliably catalyze members of two large chemical groups, azides and alkynes.
A copper mediated coupling of alkynes with N-acylimines and N-acyliminium ions in water to generate propargyl amide derivatives was also reported.
Precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of using alkynes, since they are explosive in the processing conditions.
A comprehensive and contemporary treatment of the chemistry of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics) towards electrophiles, Hypercarbon Chemistry (Second Edition) deals with all major aspects of such chemistry involved in hydrocarbon transformations, and of the structural and reaction chemistry of carboranes, mixed hydrides in which both carbon and boron atoms participate in the polyhedral molecular frameworks.
They cover metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides to form carbon-carbon bonds, metal-catalyzed carbon-hydrogen bond and carbon-carbon bond formation, catalytic nucleophilic additions of alkynes, water-soluble hydroformylation catalysis, green catalytic oxidations, hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation, catalytic rearrangements and allylation reactions, alkene metathesis, and nanocatalysis.
According to the editors (both of the National Center for Scientific Research, France), the selective activations of terminal alkynes and propargylic alcohols via vinylidene- and allenylidene-metal intermediates play an important role in recent developments of synthetic methods with useful applications in the synthesis of natural products and molecular materials and have opened new catalytic routs toward anti-Markovnikov additions to terminal alkynes, carbocyclizations, or propargylations.
The carbon chemistry analogs of these compounds are the alkynes, of which acetylene is the simplest representative.
The international contributors of these nine papers describe a number of applications are avenues of research, including cobalt phosphine complexes for the polymerization of 1,3-diens (and the influence of the phosphine ligand on polymerization chemo- and stereo-selectivity), half-sandwich ruthenium complexes containing water-soluble phosphine ligands, ruthenium-silylene versus Ruthenium-n2-silane, activation of alkynes by camphor complexes, organic chemistry as a useful tool in the study of polyoxometalates, structural and biological chemistry of organtin (IV) complexes, the role of ionic liquids in palladium catalyzed C-C bond forming reactions methyl-migrational dismutation of trimethyltin complexes, and siloxane-based polymeric structures containing complex metals.
Although triply bonded species are commonplace in organic chemistry, with alkynes being stable, easily prepared and handled species, the same is not true of the heavier main group elements.
cities, 26 halogenated hydrocarbons, 17 aldehydes, 20 ketones, 11 alcohols, 2 acids, 3 ethers, 1 epoxide, 14 furans, 26 other oxygenated compounds, 4 sulfur-containing compounds, 7 nitrogen-containing compounds, 13 alkanes, 12 alkenes, 7 alkynes, 11 cyclic hydrocarbons, and 15 aromatic compounds were found, including significant amounts of hexanal, limonene, and dichlorobenzene (14).
Topics include the analysis of alkanes and cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes, aromatic compounds, hydroxyl-containing compounds, water, amines and amides, carbonyls, carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides and proteins, synthetic polymers and rubbers, and a history of NIR applications.