The other is lateral interaction pathway, comprising local feedback circuits from horizontal cells back to photoreceptors and from amacrine
cells back to bipolar cells.
Activation of polyaxonal wide-field amacrine
cells (ACs) by global jitter motion suppresses firing of specific GCs, such as the local motion detector (fast OFF GC in salamander, ON brisk transient GC, and ON-OFF direction selective GC in rabbit; (19) W3B GC in mouse (20)).
11) Oscillatory potentials may arise on top of the b-wave with increasing stimulus intensity (9) (see Figure 2); these occur due to amacrine
They note: "Deletion of GSK3ss resulted in ss-catenin stabilization and MG proliferation without retinal injury," and that, "Intriguingly, after gene transfer of ss-catenin or Lin28, a subset of cell-cycle-reactivated MGs express markers for amacrine
cells, a type of retinal interneurons.
Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine
cells and optic nerve myelination to prenatal endotoxin exposure.
Close relationships have been observed between 5-HT and GABA in vertebrates, such as the rabbit (Osborne & Beaton 1986) and the cat (Wassle & Chun 1988), with double-labeling studies demonstrating the coexistence of these 2 neurotransmitters in amacrine
cells of the retina.
Retinogenesis proceeds in two distinct yet overlapping histogenetic periods, characterized by the development of early-born cells (ganglion, horizontal, cone, and amacrine
cells) mostly during embryogenesis and late-born cells [rods, bipolar cells (BCs), and MGCs] during early postnatal development (Livesey and Cepko 2001; Martins and Pearson 2008; Young 1985b).
However, all those studies had failed to detect any regenerated inner retina nerve cells, except when the Muller glia cells were genetically modified with genes that specifically promote the formation of amacrine
cells, which act as intermediaries in transmitting nerve signals.
Losses of immunoreactive parvalbumin amacrine
and immunoreactive _protein kinase C bipolar cells caused by methylmercury chloride intoxication in the retine of the tropical fish Hoplias malabaricus.
In the normal retina (Figure 6(a)), anti-GABA antibody labels the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the amacrine
cells located on the inner lamina of the INL, and the horizontal cells located on the outer lamina of the INL.
Differential properties of two gap junctional pathways made by All amacrine
There are six basic classes of retinal neurons: the photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine
, interplexiform and ganglion cells.