amenorrhea

(redirected from amenorrheic)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

amenorrhea

(āmĕn'ərē`a, əmĕn'–), cessation of menstruationmenstruation,
periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).
..... Click the link for more information.
. Primary amenorrhea is a delay in or a failure to start menstruation; secondary amenorrhea is an unexpected stop to the menstrual cycle. It is caused by dysfunctioning of the pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, and hypothalamus, by surgical removal of the ovaries or uterus, by medication, or by emotional trauma. The result is an inadequate amount of body fat, calories, and protein to sustain menstruation. Female athletes have a higher than average rate of menstrual dysfunction, particularly amenorrhea, but the long-term effects of the exercise-related disorders are not known. It is also common among anorexics. The lack of estrogen, however, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Hormonal deficiencies over prolonged periods of time, particularly in combination with poor diets, may cause luteal phase deficiency and hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, which may last a long time. Methods of treatment include oral contraceptives or estrogen-progestin therapy.

Amenorrhea

 

the absence of menstruation. As a physiological phenomenon it is found in girls until the time of sexual maturity, among pregnant and lactating women, and in older women after the climacteric. In all other cases, the condition indicates some form of illness.

A distinction is made between primary amenorrhea, in which no menstruation has ever occurred in the individual, and secondary amenorrhea, in which menstruation previously took place and has ceased. Amenorrhea is associated with disruption of the ripening of the follicle and formation of the corpus luteum; it may be brought on by acute or chronic infection, disease of the endocrine glands, neuro-psychiatric disorders (“war amenorrhea,” for example), cardiovascular or blood disease, and so forth. The condition may result from X-ray or radioactive irradiation of the ovaries, chronic poisoning (for example, by alcohol, nicotine, or lead), exhaustion (from hunger, undereating, or malnutrition), extreme adiposis, and so forth. In some women amenorrhea makes its appearance accompanied by extreme fatigue, either physical or mental, as in the case of students at the time of examinations. Amenorrhea may be the result of artificial abortion or of cauterization of the uterine mucous membrane with iodine or other remedies.

The condition may ensue from developmental defects in the reproductive organs (such as lack of an opening in the hymen) or from scars of the vagina or cervix uteri following trauma. Menstrual blood accumulates in the vagina, uterus, and uterine tubes and then cannot be expelled from the body; this is known as false amenorrhea.

Frequently amenorrhea produces no marked subjective disorders, but severe cases may lead to metabolic changes (adiposis or sometimes loss of weight), depression, or unpleasant sensations such as congestion or vertigo.

Finding proper treatment requires determination of the basic causes of the condition, and treatment is directed toward elimination or mollification of the causes. Effective diet, long rest periods in the fresh air, climatotherapy, and therapeutic exercises are the prescribed forms of therapy. Emotional disturbances should be removed. Hormone preparations are frequently prescribed.

REFERENCES

Vikhliaeva, E. M. “K voprosu gormonoobrazovatel’noi funktsii iaichnikov u zhenshchin v klimaktericheskom periode.” In Fiziologiia i patologiia menstrual’noi funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kvater, E. I. Gormonal’ naia diagnostika i terapiia ν akusherstve i ginekologii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1967. “Osnovnye formy anomalii menstrual’noi funktsii.” In Osnovy en-dokrinologicheskoi ginekologii. Moscow, 1966.

A. L. KAPLAN

amenorrhea

[¦ā‚men·ə′rē·ə]
(medicine)
Absence of menstruation due to either normal or abnormal conditions.
References in periodicals archive ?
2002); it is also theorized to contribute at least partially to endothelial dysfunction in young amenorrheic runners (Hoch et al.
Decreased spinal mineral content in amenorrheic women.
During the first six months after giving birth, a woman who is amenorrheic (having no menses) and feeding her baby only breastmilk receives 98 percent protection against pregnancy (Georgetown University School of Medicine 1990).
Finally, before health care providers would dispense contraceptives, they sometimes required amenorrheic women who were more than six weeks postpartum to wait for the return of their menses or to take a costly pregnancy test.
Among the participants, 47% of the nonhysterectomized women were amenorrheic, 30% of these women were hypomenorrheic, and 13.
The purpose of administering continuous HRT is to prevent scheduled bleeding and improve compliance among women wishing to remain amenorrheic.
1993) Spine and total body bone mineral density in amenorrheic endurance athletes.
SAN FRANCISCO--Athletic teenage girls who are amenorrheic have higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than do athletic girls who are eumenorrheic or girls who are nonathletic, according to a small study.
Female patients with anorexia nervosa are amenorrheic.
Amenorrheic athletes are more prone to musculoskeletal injuries (i.
12) A study of 33 amenorrheic women showed that trained paced respiration (slow deep breathing) was better than muscle relaxation or alpha-wave electroencephalographic biofeedback for decreasing the number of daily hot flashes.