amino acid


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Related to amino acid: essential amino acid

amino acid

(əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. They are characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH2) attached to the same carbon at the end of the compound. The 20 amino acids commonly found in animals are alaninealanine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistry).
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, argininearginine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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, asparagineasparagine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian proteins.
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, aspartic acidaspartic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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, cysteinecysteine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian protein.
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, glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, glutamineglutamine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein.
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, glycineglycine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Glycine is the only one of these amino acids that is not optically active, i.e., it does not have d- and
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, histidinehistidine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, isoleucineisoleucine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, leucineleucine
, organic compund, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereooisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, lysinelysine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, methioninemethionine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the L-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of the several essential amino acids needed in the diet; the human body cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites.
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, phenylalaninephenylalanine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, prolineproline
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, serineserine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, threoninethreonine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, tryptophantryptophan
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, tyrosinetyrosine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, and valinevaline
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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. In addition to these 20, scientists have synthesized more than 70 artificial amino acids that are not found in animals, and more than 100 less common amino acids also occur in biological systems, particularly in plants. Every amino acid except glycine can occur as either of two optically active stereoisomers, d or l; the more common isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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 in nature is the l-form. When the carboxyl carbon atom of one amino acid covalently binds to the amino nitrogen atom of another amino acid with the release of a water molecule, a peptidepeptide,
organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the α-carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid.
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 bond is formed. Amino acids are released in the intestinal tract by the digestion of food proteins and are then carried in the bloodstream to the body cells, where they are used for growth, maintenance, and repair. Cellular catabolism breaks amino acids down into smaller fragments. Many of the amino acids necessary in metabolism can be synthesized in the human or animal body when needed; these are called nonessential. Others cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities; these are termed essential and must be provided in the diet. Synthetic amino acids have been used by scientists as markers to track biological processes and as components of disease treatments; artificial amino acids can in some cases increase the effectivenesss of treatments by slowing the normal breakdown of the hormone or other biologic into which they are incorporated.

amino acid

[ə′mē‚nō ′as·əd]
(biochemistry)
Any of the organic compounds that contain one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups and that are polymerized to form peptides and proteins; only 20 of the more than 80 amino acids found in nature serve as building blocks for proteins; examples are tyrosine and lysine.

amino acid

any of a group of organic compounds containing one or more amino groups, -NH2, and one or more carboxyl groups, -COOH. The alpha-amino acids RCH(NH2)COOH (where R is either hydrogen or an organic group) are the component molecules of proteins; some can be synthesized in the body (nonessential amino acids) and others cannot and are thus essential components of the diet (essential amino acids)
References in periodicals archive ?
If you eat a food that contains tryptophan, the other amino acids in the food will cause the tryptophan to be converted back to protein and they also suppress its entry into the brain.
L-threonine, which increases the inhibitory amino acid glycine in the cerebral spinal fluid, is used to neutralize the excess excitatory amino acid, which may help to modify the signs and symptoms of ALS.
The 241 page, August 2011 commercial amino acids market research report provides the reader with a detailed overview of the US commercial amino acid market, for the period 2011-2016.
The amino acids, peptides, and proteins (nutraceuticals) market is segmented and projected on the basis of application which is functional food, functional beverages, dietary supplements, animal nutrition, and personal care.
The elute solution gives a high response when reacting with a Ninhydrin reagent and the analysis method also allows the identification of 20 other amino acids naturally present in tea in a single run.
The sequence of the light chain is encompassed in the first six amino acids of the set, and the heavy chain in the final 21 peptides.
They must be supplied by the diet and are widely distributed in foods, forming chelates and complexes -- a natural process which binds them to amino acids or other organic compounds, improving their uptake and utilization up to 10-fold.
Endurance is specially formulated with amino acids, plus electrolytes and carbohydrates to maximize performance.
The four essential amino acids namely Methionine, Lysine, Tryptophan and Threonine are utilized in a number of commercial applications to meet dietary requirements.
The Gold Standard Biochrom 30 Amino Acid Analyser comprises the instrument, a 84 position cooled autosampler, an analytical column with top-up resin, a prewash column, operating software, EZchrom Elite data manipulation software, a chemical kit with calibration standard, ninhydrin and buffer bottles, instruction manuals, a tool kit and spare parts/consumables kit.
Biologists have long held that swapping one codon for another doesn't change the resulting protein's structure, as long as both codons instruct the machinery to insert the same amino acid.
This heterogeneous group of isolates can be fully characterized on the basis of their PorA VR1 and VR2 amino acid sequences deduced from nucleotide sequence data.