amino sugar


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Amino sugar

A sugar in which one or more nonglycosidic hydroxyl groups is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group. The most abundant example is d -glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy- d -glucose) [see illustration].

Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)enlarge picture
Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)

A linear polymer of N-acetyl- d -glucosamine is widely distributed as chitin, the exoskeletal material of arthropods. The glycoproteins of higher animals, which are components of the proteoglycans of cartilage and skin, consist of polysaccharides that are generally sulfated and have N-acetylated glucosamine or galactosamine alternating with a uronic acid.

Amino sugars are important constituents of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides involved in biological recognition. Amino sugars of the greatest structural diversity are found in microorganisms as constituents of cell walls, in antigenic carbohydrates produced at the cell surface, and as antibiotic substances secreted from the cell. Streptomycin is the first demonstrated example of numerous amino-sugar-containing antibiotics produced notably by Actinomycetes (bacteria). See Chitin, Glycoprotein, Oligosaccharide, Polysaccharide

amino sugar

[ə¦mē·nō ¦shu̇g·ər]
(biochemistry)
A monosaccharide in which a non-glycosidic hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group; an example isD-glucosamine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Amino sugar N is strongly associated with microbial activity, commonly limited by high carbon to nitrogen ratios in soils.
Their portfolio of brands include NeoStrata, Exuviance, CoverBlend, and NeoStrata Therapeutics that feature unsurpassed Polyhydroxy Bionic Acid and amino sugar technologies to meet the needs of every skin type.
GLUCOSAMINE sulphate is an amino sugar and is one of the building blocks of cartilage.
Glucosamine, an amino sugar, is used to form tendons, ligaments, cartilage (collagen is the main protein) and joint fluids (synovial fluid).
However, recent research has shown that glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino sugar that helps build cartilage that cushions joints and that is often paired with another substance called chondroitin, can be effective not only in relieving arthritis pain but in combating arthritis as well.
Glucosamine is a form of amino sugar that is believed to play a role in cartilage formation and repair.
Glucosamine sulphate is an amino sugar and one of the building blocks of cartilage.
A GLUCOSAMINE sulphate is an amino sugar that is necessary for the production of connective tissue in the body.
Schulten and Schnitzer have reported little variability in soil amino acids composition and thus suggested the usefulness of soil amino acids concentration as an indicator of any biological property [3 4] observed that amino acids and amino sugars were indicator of soil N responsiveness by agricultural crops.
Common amino acids, phospho-amino acids, amino sugars, and simple sugars can be separated and detected with excellent run-to-run reproducibility," says Ruthann Kiser, director of consumables product management at Dionex.
A daily supplement of the amino sugars glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate will stimulate cartilage production and improve joint function, while a multivitamin will help keep bones healthy.