Ammunition

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ammunition

[‚am·yə′ni·shən]
(ordnance)
All kinds of missiles to be thrown against an enemy.
Missiles not for direct use against an enemy, with such purposes as illumination, signaling, and decelerating.
A complete round and all its components, that is, the material required for firing a weapon such as a pistol.

Ammunition

 

articles of weaponry designed to hit enemy manpower, destroy his combat materiel, demolish fortifications and structures, and carry out other missions (illuminate the terrain, drop agitational literature). The action of most ammunition is based on the utilization of the energy given off by explosive substances, which causes the destruction (demolition, annihilation) of various targets.

Among the types of ammunition are nuclear ammunition; artillery rounds and infantry mortar rounds; rocket shells; rounds with rocket artillery projectiles, mines, and shells; antitank guided missiles; aerial bombs; rifle cartridges; hand and rifle grenades; explosive devices; charges of explosives; mines; naval mines; torpedoes; illumination and signal rounds; and others. Also included in ammunition are particular elements of the ammunition itself, such as fuses, powder charges, explosive charges, percussion caps and primer cups (fuses), blasting caps and detonators, igniters, cartridge cases, powder bags, and others.

Ammunition is delivered to the target by being projected from firearms (shells, mortar shells, rifle grenades, bullets), by means of various engines (rocket shell, torpedo), by being dropped on the target from an altitude (aerial bombs), or by being thrown by hand (the hand grenade). Some ammunition is set up on the ground or in the water (mines), and it acts (explodes) on contact with the target or when the target is in the ammunition’s zone of operations. There are types of ammunition (for example, mines) that are set up on the objective to be destroyed and explode after a predetermined time interval or upon a signal given by radio or wire. All ammunition is used just once. Particular elements of the ammunition are an exception; after repair, cartridge cases and the housings of primer cups can be used again.

Waging a battle involves large expenditures of ammunition. For example, in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, Russia expended 900,000 artillery rounds. During World War I (1914–18) about 65.3 million artillery rounds were manufactured at Russian plants and imported from abroad. In the Great Patriotic War, during 1943–44 alone, USSR industry manufactured 359 million shells, mines, and aerial bombs. Under current conditions, where the troops are highly saturated with automatic weapons that possess high rates of fire and where various new types of weapons are available, the amount of ammunition necessary to support a battle (or operation) rises sharply.

Necessary stocks of ammunition are established during peacetime, and some of them are used for troop combat training.

REFERENCES

Tret’iakov, G. M. Boepripasy artillerii. Moscow, 1947.
Latukhin, A. N. Boevye upravliaemye rakety. Moscow, 1968.
Organizatsiia i vooruzhenie arntii i flotov kapitalisticheskikh gosudarstv, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.

N. I. LAPSHIN

References in classic literature ?
Meriem seized the receptacle as the possible container of extra ammunition.
One may picture the orderly expectation, the officers alert and watchful, the gunners ready, the ammunition piled to hand, the limber gunners with their horses and waggons, the groups of civilian spectators standing as near as they were permitted, the evening stillness, the ambulances and hospital tents with the burned and wounded from Weybridge; then the dull resonance of the shots the Martians fired, and the clumsy projectile whirling over the trees and houses and smashing amid the neighbouring fields.
Here the keys which Thuvia bore from the dead thern of the prison vault were the means of giving us immediate entrance to the chamber, and very quickly we were thoroughly outfitted with arms and ammunition.
A thorough search revealed the fact that nothing had been taken but Clayton's two revolvers and the small supply of ammunition he had saved out for them.
Could I find my way back to the prospector with its priceless freight of books, firearms, ammunition, scien-tific instruments, and still more books--its great library of reference works upon every conceivable branch of ap-plied sciences?
But wait, I must get you a weapon and ammunition," and Werper walked quickly from the tent.
If he is a friend and no enemy, then no harm has been done, bwana; but if he proves to be an enemy, I should like very much to have a rifle and some ammunition.
My men were all armed now with both rifles and pistols, each having plenty of ammunition.
If you will take me to Barunda's uncle before Muda Saffir reaches him you shall each have the finest rifles that the white man makes, with ammunition enough to last you a year.
We loaded tackles and ropes, water, food and ammunition in it, and then we each implored Billings to let us be the one to accompany him.
To the cooks and boats'-crews of every vessel that had dropped anchor off Berande in the past several years were ascribed the arrival of scores of the stolen articles and of the major portion of the ammunition.
The only thing that saved us was the exhausting of Red-Eye's ammunition.