amphibious warfare


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to amphibious warfare: amphibious landing

amphibious warfare

(ămfĭb`ēəs), employment of a combination of land and sea forces to take or defend a military objective. The general strategy is very ancient and was extensively employed by the Greeks, e.g., in the Athenian attack on Sicily in 415 B.C. The term is, however, of modern coinage. It is sometimes applied to the joint operations of the Allied army and naval forces in the disastrous Gallipoli campaign (1915) of World War I. Amphibious warfare was widely employed in World War II. When the Japanese entered the war on a large scale in Dec., 1941, they used combined air, land, and naval operations to capture strategic islands such as the Philippines, Java, and Sumatra. However, the Japanese landings, like the Allied landing in N Africa (Nov., 1942), encountered little opposition and did not offer a true illustration of the problems of amphibious warfare. The problem faced by the Allies in the reconquest of Europe and the Pacific islands was how to land their forces on a heavily defended coast line. It was solved by the construction of special vessels called landing craft that were seaworthy and yet capable of allowing tanks and infantry to emerge without difficulty into shallow water for landing. The typical Allied amphibious operation consisted of heavy and continued air and naval bombardment of the enemy defenses, followed by a landing of troops with complete equipment from landing craft; the landing forces were supported in the early stages by naval guns until land artillery could come into action. By use of this method the Allies were able to invade heavily defended Pacific islands such as Tarawa (1943), Saipan (1944), Iwo Jima (1945), and Okinawa (1945). In Europe the Allies made landings on Sicily (1943) and Italy (1943–44), but the most spectacular example of amphibious warfare was the invasion of Normandy by the Allies from England on June 6, 1944 (see Normandy campaignNormandy campaign,
June to Aug., 1944, in World War II. The Allied invasion of the European continent through Normandy began about 12:15 AM on June 6, 1944 (D-day). The plan, known as Operation Overlord, had been prepared since 1943; supreme command over its execution was
..... Click the link for more information.
). That action was a prime example of combined movements of naval craft, land forces, and aircraft (used for offense, protection of other forces, and transport). The U.S. invasion of Incheon (1950) during the Korean War and the British and French invasion of Egypt during the Sinai crisis (1957) utilized the same basic tactics. Amphibious landings later occurred in Vietnam War and in the British retaking (1982) of the Falkland Islands. Modern amphibious assault ships use helicopters and VTOL airplanes to mount and support amphibious attacks.

Bibliography

See J. A. Isely and P. A. Crowl, The U.S. Marines and Amphibious War (1951); B. Fergusson, The Watery Maze: The Story of Combined Operations (1961).

References in periodicals archive ?
For the purposes of this volume, amphibious warfare is defined as the form of warfare in which land-based and waterborne forces cooperate against an enemy.
The acquisition of the Mistrals would be a major enhancement for the Russian navy's amphibious warfare capabilities, which, at present, include Project 1171/Tapir class and Project 775/Ropucha landing ships.
Besides deploying missiles, Beijing has trained up some 400,000 amphibious warfare troops in three southern ''military regions'' on the mainland near Taiwan, the report said.
Mesa Verde has been able to complete all of our training evolutions for amphibious warfare certification.
The following chapter compares the development of amphibious warfare doctrine within the U.
The Marines worked closely with sailors to accomplish a very challenging fall patrol that sharpened our amphibious warfare skills, continuing to make Essex 'Always Ready' for any operational tasking.
Kapoor was speaking, as a chief guest, at the two-day Joint Amphibious Warfare symposium which concluded yesterday at the Armed Forces Medical College here.
Originally published by the Royal Navy, the volume was intended for a professional military audience; specifically, "to enhance Royal Marines' core knowledge of amphibious warfare.
Navy's next- generation class of amphibious warfare ships.
In recent years, the Navy has used nuclear propulsion systems for its submarines and most aircraft carriers and conventional propulsion systems that rely on fossil fuel for its surface combatants and amphibious warfare ships.
The problems in Dieppe mainly arose from a lack of coherent strategy, no clear understanding of the tactical flaws of attacking the port itself, and, Neilland's main point, a complete ignorance of the nature and strategies of amphibious warfare.
Other chapters consider the writing of unit histories and the professional study of the campaign in the development of amphibious warfare, and the shifts that are evident in the portrayal of Anzacs in Australian cinema.