Structure and presence of the amyloplast
membrane proteins, puroindolines, are associated with wheat grain hardness.
There is an exception concerning amyloplast
formation during the bicellular stage of some grasses, such as Sorghum bicolor, in which the plastids next to the tapetum accumulate starch before those that are far from the tapetum do (Christensen & Homer, 1974).
In plants, sedimentable amyloplasts
have been conceived of, since the turn of the century, as potential statoliths (Haberlandt, 1900; Nemec, 1900).
In Mo17, however, both endosperm cell division and amyloplast
initiation appears to be equally heat labile.
1992) and may hold these two proteins to the lipidrich surface of the amyloplast
membrane, transiently attached to the starch granule.
Starch is synthesized and accumulated in amyloplasts
, a polymer formed by the association of two polysaccharides: amylose (approximately 25% of the total content) and amylopectin (the remaining 75%), the main component of starch granules (Zeeman, Kossmann, & Smith, 2010).
a high-capacity calcium-binding protein in amyloplasts
They have a dense cytoplasm with irregular shape filled with numerous small vesicles, oil body, abundant amyloplasts
and a prominent centrally placed nucleus (Fig.
Transmission electron microscopy showed that cells of the yellow friable callus had dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli, a large number of amyloplasts
, and absence of vacuoles.
A complete ferredoxin/thioredoxin system regulates fundamental processes in amyloplasts
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
ABA has been detected in every major organ of plant from the root cap to the apical bud and synthesized in almost all cells that contain chloroplast and amyloplasts
Starch has been found to serve as the predominant energy reserve in other well-studied secretory structures (Fahn 1979, Paiva & Machado 2008), and the juxtaposition of mitochondria and amyloplasts
indicate the energy need for starch hydrolysis, as discussed by Paiva & Machado (2008).