Figure 1b displays the percentage of patients receiving epidural analgesia
for major liver resections in the US across the study period.
All patients had pre-emptive analgesia
at induction using l mg/kg of intra-muscular sodium diclofenac and 0.
Multiple local and systemic mechanisms of analgesia
may underpin the HVLIA technique.
Nine cases were excluded as they received both epidural analgesia
and intravenous morphine.
It is hypothesised that pre-emptive analgesia
cannot completely block all the pain signals from an incision wound, because the mechanisms that generate such pain are diverse and complex.
The incidence of adverse drug reactions is similar among all local analgesia
agents [Malamed et al.
Opioids provide analgesia
, but can cause severe respiratory depression.
Depth of analgesia
was assessed every 2-5 minutes by response to artery forceps applied to the digit and later at the skin proximal to the tarsal joint.
Documenting all these things is important, so the effectiveness of analgesia
can be monitored.
Epps, MD, Monitoring to Improve Ventilation Safety during Sedation and Analgesia
Who is designated to monitor and adjust the delivery of morphine by the patient controlled analgesia
The approval of IONSYS and of DepoDur, a sustained-release injectable morphine for epidural use approved in 2004, illustrate the movement of postoperative analgesia
"into this realm of less invasive and less burdensome technologies" that are more user friendly and less cumbersome for patients and nursing staff, Dr.