analogy

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analogy,

in biology, the similarities in function, but differences in evolutionary origin, of body structures in different organisms. For example, the wing of a bird is analogous to the wing of an insect, since both are used for flight. However, there is no common ancestral origin in the evolution of these structures: While the wings of birds are modified skeletal forelimbs, insect wings are extensions of the body wall. Although insects and birds do have a very remote common ancestry (more than 600 million years ago), the wings of the two groups evolved after their ancestries had separated. See also homologyhomology
, in biology, the correspondence between structures of different species that is attributable to their evolutionary descent from a common ancestor. For example, the forelimbs of vertebrates, such as the wing of bird or bat, and the foreleg of an amphibian, are
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.

analogy

a comparison made to show a degree of similarity, but not an exact identity, between phenomena. In sociology, analogies are often made between social phenomena and mechanical or organic phenomena. This can be seen in classical forms of sociological functionalism in which societies are often seen as ‘machine-like’ or, more usually, ‘organism-like’ entities whose parts interrelate and reinforce each other. Although sometimes useful, and perhaps even indispensable in any science, recourse to analogies is often suspect. Assumptions made or relationships imputed (e.g. ‘social needs’ analogous with ‘animal needs’) require separate justification. The use of analogies therefore always involves risks. See MODEL.

Analogy

 

a similarity in some respects between objects, phenomena, processes, and so forth. In conclusions drawn by analogy, knowledge gained from the examination of a certain object, known as “the model” is transferred to another object which is less well studied in certain aspects—less accessible to experiment, less discernible, and so forth. In relation to concrete objects, conclusions drawn by analogy are, generally speaking, only probabilistic; they are one of the sources of scientific hypotheses and inductive reasoning and play an important role in scientific discoveries. If, on the other hand, the inferences drawn by analogy relate to abstract objects, then under certain conditions (in particular, with the establishment of isomorphic or homomorphic relations between them) they are capable of yielding determinate conclusions.

REFERENCES

Aristotle. Analitiki pervaia i vtoraia. Moscow, 1952.
Asmus, V. F. Logika. Moscow, 1947.
Mill, J. S. Sistema logiki sillogicheskoi i induktivnoi, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1914. (Translated from English.)
Polya, G. Matematika i pravdopodobnye rassuzhdeniia. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Uemov, A. I. “Osnovnye formy i pravila vyvodov po analogii.” In Problemy logiki nauchnogo Poznaniia. Moscow, 1964.
Venikov, V. A. Teoriia podobiia i modelirovanie primeniteVno k zadacham elektroenergetiki. Moscow, 1966.
Corafas, D. N. Sistemy imoderlirovanie. Moscow, 1967. (Translated from English.)

B. V. BIRIUKOV and A. I. UEMOV

analogy

1. Biology the relationship between analogous organs or parts
2. Logic maths a form of reasoning in which a similarity between two or more things is inferred from a known similarity between them in other respects
References in periodicals archive ?
Textual comprehension of semantic alignment U Underline key words and Textual comprehension of variables semantic alignment L List the variables Textual comprehension of semantic alignment E Estimate a likely answer Analogical reasoning via a mental calculation S Steps to show working and Analogical reasoning derive an answer & T Test the likely correctness Back testing of the answer by comprehension of comparing to your semantic alignment estimate, and and analogical reasoning understanding of the problem Table 2.
The foundation for this project was entirely based on the analogical integration of sound, movement and colour, without any recorded music or aesthetical music accompaniment.
Gentner applies the analogical reasoning theory to what she calls spontaneous learning, which is a natural learning process performed by people faced with an unfamiliar domain without the assistance of outside guidance.
After a critical and preparatory survey of the extant work, from chapter 4 onwards Bartha presents his own theory, which he calls the "articulation model of analogical reasoning.
But this same resonant interval is "the means of epiphany or revelation," "the instrument of analogical intuition of Being," because it links different levels of reality culminating in the Trinity.
Barnes, Hegarty, and Smeets (1997) provided the first functional-analytic RFT-based model of analogical reasoning as responding in accordance with equivalence relations between equivalence relations.
We also call attention to the production of past tense forms, but, unlike abovementioned studies, we do not concentrate on the differences or similarities between regular and irregular past tense forms, but on the possibility that analogical processes pervade even completely regular past tense production, irrespective of irregular past tense formation.
So, I conclude that Hawking's analogical argument fails.
But the relationship between our current cities and the heavenly city in Christianity is an analogical one.
At the analogical level, Grieve sees the Cronica, Il Filoloco, and a sixteenth-century Spanish prose romance, Historia de los dos enamorados Flores y Blancaflor, as encoding the epic working out of a divine plan.
proposes in Christ and Apollo (1960), an analogical interpretation calls for real similarity and real difference.
Klose and Barry List, of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences in Linthicum, Maryland, pose a simple, analogical question, the answer to which nicely underscores the importance of seeking and applying solid market research.