analogy

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analogy,

in biology, the similarities in function, but differences in evolutionary origin, of body structures in different organisms. For example, the wing of a bird is analogous to the wing of an insect, since both are used for flight. However, there is no common ancestral origin in the evolution of these structures: While the wings of birds are modified skeletal forelimbs, insect wings are extensions of the body wall. Although insects and birds do have a very remote common ancestry (more than 600 million years ago), the wings of the two groups evolved after their ancestries had separated. See also homologyhomology
, in biology, the correspondence between structures of different species that is attributable to their evolutionary descent from a common ancestor. For example, the forelimbs of vertebrates, such as the wing of bird or bat, and the foreleg of an amphibian, are
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.

analogy

a comparison made to show a degree of similarity, but not an exact identity, between phenomena. In sociology, analogies are often made between social phenomena and mechanical or organic phenomena. This can be seen in classical forms of sociological functionalism in which societies are often seen as ‘machine-like’ or, more usually, ‘organism-like’ entities whose parts interrelate and reinforce each other. Although sometimes useful, and perhaps even indispensable in any science, recourse to analogies is often suspect. Assumptions made or relationships imputed (e.g. ‘social needs’ analogous with ‘animal needs’) require separate justification. The use of analogies therefore always involves risks. See MODEL.

Analogy

 

a similarity in some respects between objects, phenomena, processes, and so forth. In conclusions drawn by analogy, knowledge gained from the examination of a certain object, known as “the model” is transferred to another object which is less well studied in certain aspects—less accessible to experiment, less discernible, and so forth. In relation to concrete objects, conclusions drawn by analogy are, generally speaking, only probabilistic; they are one of the sources of scientific hypotheses and inductive reasoning and play an important role in scientific discoveries. If, on the other hand, the inferences drawn by analogy relate to abstract objects, then under certain conditions (in particular, with the establishment of isomorphic or homomorphic relations between them) they are capable of yielding determinate conclusions.

REFERENCES

Aristotle. Analitiki pervaia i vtoraia. Moscow, 1952.
Asmus, V. F. Logika. Moscow, 1947.
Mill, J. S. Sistema logiki sillogicheskoi i induktivnoi, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1914. (Translated from English.)
Polya, G. Matematika i pravdopodobnye rassuzhdeniia. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Uemov, A. I. “Osnovnye formy i pravila vyvodov po analogii.” In Problemy logiki nauchnogo Poznaniia. Moscow, 1964.
Venikov, V. A. Teoriia podobiia i modelirovanie primeniteVno k zadacham elektroenergetiki. Moscow, 1966.
Corafas, D. N. Sistemy imoderlirovanie. Moscow, 1967. (Translated from English.)

B. V. BIRIUKOV and A. I. UEMOV

analogy

1. Biology the relationship between analogous organs or parts
2. Logic maths a form of reasoning in which a similarity between two or more things is inferred from a known similarity between them in other respects
References in periodicals archive ?
The philosopher must understand and express these relationships (these intrinsic effects of the causal substance) analogically because these properties manifest different determinations of the substance (the unitary being in question).
All three of these relations are conscious and all three belong to the conscious state of being in love that is deity, analogically conceived.
To apply the term "sacrament" to the religious practices of other religions, even analogically, might then suggest that those practices convey the full presence of Christ.
ignores the possibility of analogically restored glottal stops, first, when he ascribes glottal stop after a in a ninth-century Assyrian transcription to the conservatism of "a small dialect" and, secondly, when he assigns the development of *i', *u' > e, o generally to the eighth to seventh centuries on a similar basis.
Dan's contention that the word can evoke reality analogically in a way film cannot brings to mind the classic dualist outlook on art and literature summarized above.
the ethics of sexuality, most of whose traditional problems-adultery, fornication, homosexuality-have been thought about analogically, has always depended on the permanence of dual gender.
The American state analogically reduced to a tiny "brownish white, whitish brown" chirping passerine?
Analogical names are--despite their respective dissimilarities--intensionally unified by some central meaning that permeates and governs all of the analogically shared names.
The distribution of the virtual current density J varies analogically to the induced current density when the electric properties of the channel vary.
First of all, it is the parameter of diagrammaticity which implies that a word is diagrammatic if it is perfectly segmentable and semantically motivated, as it is the case with the word sing-er in which morphotactic transparency reflects analogically semantic compositionality because it is composed of the verbal base followed directly by a derivational agentive suffix and its meaning equals the meaning of its constituents.
Analogically, when the car is without seats and with them and deformation of the mounted doors is bigger than 300 mm, reaction force makes up:
Jeffreys proposes resolving the conflict by prioritizing the rights of the person and applying rights only to collectives analogically.