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in biology, the similarities in function, but differences in evolutionary origin, of body structures in different organisms. For example, the wing of a bird is analogous to the wing of an insect, since both are used for flight. However, there is no common ancestral origin in the evolution of these structures: While the wings of birds are modified skeletal forelimbs, insect wings are extensions of the body wall. Although insects and birds do have a very remote common ancestry (more than 600 million years ago), the wings of the two groups evolved after their ancestries had separated. See also homologyhomology
, in biology, the correspondence between structures of different species that is attributable to their evolutionary descent from a common ancestor. For example, the forelimbs of vertebrates, such as the wing of bird or bat, and the foreleg of an amphibian, are
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a comparison made to show a degree of similarity, but not an exact identity, between phenomena. In sociology, analogies are often made between social phenomena and mechanical or organic phenomena. This can be seen in classical forms of sociological functionalism in which societies are often seen as ‘machine-like’ or, more usually, ‘organism-like’ entities whose parts interrelate and reinforce each other. Although sometimes useful, and perhaps even indispensable in any science, recourse to analogies is often suspect. Assumptions made or relationships imputed (e.g. ‘social needs’ analogous with ‘animal needs’) require separate justification. The use of analogies therefore always involves risks. See MODEL.



a similarity in some respects between objects, phenomena, processes, and so forth. In conclusions drawn by analogy, knowledge gained from the examination of a certain object, known as “the model” is transferred to another object which is less well studied in certain aspects—less accessible to experiment, less discernible, and so forth. In relation to concrete objects, conclusions drawn by analogy are, generally speaking, only probabilistic; they are one of the sources of scientific hypotheses and inductive reasoning and play an important role in scientific discoveries. If, on the other hand, the inferences drawn by analogy relate to abstract objects, then under certain conditions (in particular, with the establishment of isomorphic or homomorphic relations between them) they are capable of yielding determinate conclusions.


Aristotle. Analitiki pervaia i vtoraia. Moscow, 1952.
Asmus, V. F. Logika. Moscow, 1947.
Mill, J. S. Sistema logiki sillogicheskoi i induktivnoi, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1914. (Translated from English.)
Polya, G. Matematika i pravdopodobnye rassuzhdeniia. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Uemov, A. I. “Osnovnye formy i pravila vyvodov po analogii.” In Problemy logiki nauchnogo Poznaniia. Moscow, 1964.
Venikov, V. A. Teoriia podobiia i modelirovanie primeniteVno k zadacham elektroenergetiki. Moscow, 1966.
Corafas, D. N. Sistemy imoderlirovanie. Moscow, 1967. (Translated from English.)



1. Biology the relationship between analogous organs or parts
2. Logic maths a form of reasoning in which a similarity between two or more things is inferred from a known similarity between them in other respects
References in periodicals archive ?
System-based contributions included using natural language to bootstrap commonsense reasoning by analogy, generalizing task knowledge in a robotic agent to improve knowledge reuse, and a cognitive tutor that reasons over a student's misconceptions to provide problems designed to overcome student misconceptions.
The goal of the work is analysis of the correctness of the application in the electrostatic analogy of magnetostatics of inhomogeneous magnetizing media of two known models of magnetization.
Defining analogy as "the connector of the known to the unknown, the sensible to the subsensible and infinite" (5), Anderson organizes the first three chapters on Donne, Spenser and Milton on the perception of death--its "figuration" (3).
It's not meant to: analogy is a rhetorical device, and it prioritizes persuasiveness over accuracy.
The range of tasks successfully tackled by SME-based systems suggests that analogy might lead to a new technology for artificial intelligence systems as well as a deeper understanding of human cognition.
Suddenly, the student with autism created a movement using a personal analogy, where he demonstrated a movement of pushing a car, showing strong energy.
But the truth of the matter, at least to me, is there is no analogy for pain and any analogy that we use is going to fall flat," he said.
However, Darwin also warns that analogy is only an accessory to the understanding: "when with licentious activity it links together objects, otherwise discordant, by some fanciful similitude; it may indeed collect ornaments for wit and poetry, but philosophy and truth recoil from its combinations" (1).
Since we are concerned with Avicenna's doctrine of analogy, let us focus on the place of analogy within the intensional spectrum of names before considering Avicenna's subdivisions of analogy.
This analogy is troublesome, given the lack of experience first term Senators have, although none of the present candidates are analogous to Obama on philosophy.
The mechanism of analogy has been documented for more than a decade by many psychologists (Gentner, 1989; Vosniadou, 1989).
The following demonstrates the interplay between analogy and verisimilitude: