anabolic steroid

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anabolic steroid

(ăn'əbŏl`ĭk stĕr`oid, stĭr`–) or

androgenic steroid

(ăn'drōjĕn`ĭk), any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosteronetestosterone
, principal androgen, or male sex hormone. One of the group of compounds known as anabolic steroids, testosterone is secreted by the testes (see testis) but is also synthesized in small quantities in the ovaries, cortices of the adrenal glands, and placenta, usually
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 that promote muscle and bone growth. Used to treat uncontrolled weight loss in wasting diseases, anabolic steroids have also been taken by bodybuilders and athletes seeking increased muscle mass, strength, and stamina. Such use is banned by the International Olympic Committee and other governing bodies in sports, but not all sports test for steroids. Major League Baseball did not test for steroids until 2003, when random testing returned positive results on more than 5% of the players tested, and the National Hockey League still does not test. Under a 1988 federal law it is illegal to distribute anabolic steroids for nontherapeutic uses, and in 1991 they joined other abused drugs as controlled substances. Nonetheless, a precursor hormone called dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which can convert to testosterone in the body, is available as a dietary supplement without a prescription. Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to elevated cholesterol levels, liver disease, blood clots leading to heart attack or stroke, increased aggressiveness and irritability, and, in adolescents, permanent stunting of growth. See also steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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.

anabolic steroid

[‚an·ə¦bäl·ik ′sti‚rȯid]
(biochemistry)
Any of a group of steroid hormones that increase anabolism.

anabolic steroid

any of a group of synthetic steroid hormones (androgens) used to stimulate muscle and bone growth for therapeutic or athletic purposes
References in periodicals archive ?
Ribeiro de Souza noted that the study suggests that anabolic androgenic steroid use may be associated with the development of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy young people.
Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and related substances in sport and exercise.
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs that have similar effects to testosterone (Kochakian and Yesalis 2000, Khun 2002).
It is supposed that nandrolone ingested with food would be quickly absorbed and delivered to the liver, at which nandrolone is metabolized into weak anabolic androgenic steroids, while intramuscularly administrated nandrolone would directly go to the testis via the bloodstream and affect gene expression in the testis before nandrolone is converted into weak metabolites.
SPORTS & EXERCISE 644, 648 (2006) (reporting that 90 percent of steroids users surveyed administered anabolic androgenic steroids in cycles of four to twelve weeks with drug-free intervals in between these cycles); Miia Parssinen & Timo Seppala, Steroid Use and Long-Term Health Risks in Former Athletes, 32 SPORTS MED.
Thirty body builder athletes with daily exercise for two hours and at least five times per week for the preceding two years were selected and divided into two groups (15 cases in each group): group one with chronic anabolic steroid abuse for the preceding two years and at least twice weekly or eight times per month of testosterone or nandrolone injection or daily oxymetholone ingestion and group two, which included athletes without history of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse.
Second, Androstenedione (Andro) which is an androgenic steroid produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries.
Clostebol is a synthetic androgenic steroid with anabolic effects that is frequently used in sports to increase physical performance.
Changes in androgenic steroid profile due to urine contamination by microorganisms: a prospective study in the context of doping control.
At the beginning of the 1990s, the large number of positive results for 4-chlorotestosterone acetate (CTA [1]; Clostebol) after injection site analyses in France and elsewhere in Europe led us to focus on the metabolism of this androgenic steroid.