Sex-gender congruent male androphiles occupy the gender role typical of their sex, behave in a relatively masculine manner, and identify as "men.
For example, on the Indian subcontinent, transgendered male androphiles known as hijra bestow blessings from Hindu gods and goddesses for luck and fertility at weddings and at the birth of male babies (Nanda, 1998).
In terms of biodemographic correlates, when compared to gynephilic males, both sex-gender congruent and transgendered male androphiles tend to be later born among their siblings (e.
Prospective and retrospective cross-cultural research on early psychosocial development among transgendered and sex-gender congruent male androphiles has shown that the childhood behaviour of such males is characterized by greater levels of female-typical behaviour (e.
Consequently, adult sex-gender congruent male androphiles are relatively masculine when compared to transgendered adult male androphiles.
Since male androphilia appears to have a genetic component, but male androphiles reproduce little, if at all, one would have expected genes for male androphilia to have become extinct given the relative reproductive costs associated with this trait and the reproductive benefits associated with male gynephilia.
Previous discussions pertaining to the evolution of male androphilia have centred almost exclusively on sex-gender congruent male androphiles.
This may seem perplexing from a Western cultural perspective, however, it is important to note that in cultures where transgendered male androphilia predominates, many male gynephiles may experience relatively little sexual aversion to the idea of engaging in certain types of same-sex sexual interactions because, to a certain extent, transgendered male androphiles resemble their preferred sex partners (i.
In Samoa, fa'afafine enjoy a high level of social acceptance that, while not absolute, stands in stark contrast to the situation experienced by Western transgendered male androphiles (e.
Given that kin share a disproportionate number of genes in common, the female kin of male androphiles should experience, on average, greater increased reproductive output than females with no androphilic male relatives.
Studies conducted in one Italian lab have repeatedly shown that the maternal aunts of male androphiles are more fecund then those of male gynephiles (Camperio-Ciani et al.