aneurysm

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Related to aneurysmal: aneurysmal bone cyst

aneurysm

(ăn`yo͝orĭzəm), localized dilatation of a blood vessel, particularly an arteryartery,
blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart. Except for the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
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, or the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. Dilatation of an artery, and therefore weakness of that portion of the arterial wall, may be rarely congenital, or it may be caused by syphilissyphilis
, contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). Syphilis was not widely recognized until an epidemic in Europe at the end of the 15th cent.
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, hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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, bacterial and fungal infections, or penetrating injury as from a bullet or knife. An aneurysm may be asymptomatic or it may cause varying symptoms, depending upon its location and size and on whether the expanding mass is pressing on adjacent nerves or vital organs. The weakened arterial walls of an aneurysm are always in danger of sudden rupture, with resulting hemorrhage and death.

Aneurysms occur most commonly in the large arteries; the aortaaorta
, primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. The human aorta, c.1 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, originates at the left ventricle of the heart.
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, the largest vessel in the body, is the one most often affected. Ventricular aneurysms of the heart often occur after myocardial infarctionsinfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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. Aneurysms also occur in the arteries within the skull and in other areas of the body.

Aneurysms can be detected by echocardiogram, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging scans, coronary arteriograms, and biplane ventriculograms. Treatment, where feasible, may involve surgery to remove the aneurysm or the insertion of coiled wire to close it off. Coiled wire can only be used on aneurysms that are connected to the blood vessel by a narrowed neck. The coiling fills the aneurysm, obstructing the flow of blood into the dilatation, and blood clots form around the wire, preventing the aneurysm from bursting. Surgical excision of the dilated saclike portion of the affected artery sometimes requires the replacement of that portion by a synthetic graft, a section of vessel (made of polymer fiber) that is similar in size.

aneurysm

[′an·yə‚riz·əm]
(medicine)
Localized abnormal dilation of an artery due to weakening of the vessel wall.

aneurysm

, aneurism
a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
Improved survival after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Review of case management during a 12-year period.
Management of acute subdural hematomas from aneurysmal rupture.
A delicate meshwork of osteoid spicules is usually present in the fibrous septa lining aneurysmal spaces.
In humans, aneurysmal bone cysts are expansile lesions that consist of anastomotic cavernous spaces filled with unclotted blood, fibrous tissues, and, usually, osseous components.
From this survey, the investigators calculated the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in participants aged 50-65 years as 15.
The effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate infusion on serum levels of sodium and potassium in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
However, these findings do not clearly differentiate the aneurysmal bone cyst from the simple cyst in the child under age 8.
Transesophageal echocardiography, short axis view from the high esophagus showing aneurysm of the aortic root (A), aneurysmal dilatation of the left main and circumflex coronary arteries with partial thrombosis of the lumen (B), and aneurysmatic dilatation of the left main, circumflex and anterior descending coronary arteries with partial thrombosis of the lumen (C)
Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhages affect about 6,000 patients a year in the UK
The time course of aneurysmal haemorrhage on computed tomographs.
The GORE Hybrid Vascular Graft is indicated for use as a vascular prosthesis for replacement or bypass of diseased vessels in patients suffering occlusive or aneurysmal diseases, in trauma patients requiring vascular replacement, for dialysis access, or for other vascular procedures.