Angular distortion often occurs in a butt weld when the transverse shrinkage is not uniform along the depth of the plates welded.
For this the extent of angular distortion should be known for a particular set of operating parameters.
In this paper a new FEA model to predict temperature time histories, angular distortion and residual stresses with sufficient accuracy is detailed.
Minimizing angular distortion
in welding by reverse-side heating M Mochizuki, Osaka University, Japan
For example, the pointed poles of the sinusoidal projection add considerable angular distortion to polar areas, while projections with a polar line, such as the Robinson projection, introduce less shape distortion at poles.
The acceptable area in this example is the area with an angular distortion of less than 30[degrees] and areal distortion between 90% and 111%.
Reduction by In-Process Control Welding Using Back Heating Source
The areal distortion and maximum angular distortion are similar to those of other pseudocylindrical projections (Appendix A).
Angular distortion is moderate near the equator and increases towards the edges of the graticule (Table 4).
It can be shown as a simple outline or a continuous raster fill that depicts either area or angular distortion.
The Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection is less dramatic in exposing the angular distortion that results from maintaining the equal-area property.
He added that the projection had "the single advantage of presenting a picture of the entire world without either excessive angular distortion
or scale change" (p.