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plant that germinates from seed, blossoms, produces seed, and dies within one year. Annuals propagate themselves by seed only, unlike many biennialsbiennial,
plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter.
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 and perennialsperennial,
any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial applies to both woody and herbaceous plants (see stem) and thus includes numerous members of the kingdom.
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. They are thus especially suited to environments that have a short growing season. Cultivated annuals are usually considered to be of three general types: tender, half-hardy, and hardy. Tender and half-hardy annuals do not mature and blossom in one ordinary temperate growing season unless they are started early under glass and are set outdoors as young plants. Hardy annuals are usually sown where they are expected to bloom. Quite often they reseed themselves year after year. Blooming is prolonged by cutting the flowers before the seeds can form. Typical annual flowers are cosmos, larkspur, petunia, and zinnia; annual vegetables include corn, tomatoes, and wheat.


See H. G. W. Fogg, Dictionary of Annual Plants (new ed. 1972).



a plant that completes its life cycle within a single growing season of usually two to five months. The seeds usually sprout in the spring or summer; by autumn (in temperate climates) the plant is bearing fruit and dying. Annuals include flax, millet, buckwheat, spring wheat, corn cockle, and wild oats. Annual plants that develop particularly rapidly are known as ephemerals; they often mature in four to ten weeks. Some annuals, including knapweeds and shepherd’s purse, can survive the winter in the rosette phase if germination occurs late in the season.

Annuals grow only in those regions where they can complete their growth cycle in the period of a single year. Their numbers are greatest in desert areas and fewest in tundras. Annuals are most common where the plant cover is the least dense. In areas where dense plant cover is present, as in meadows, the annuals generally obtain supplementary nourishment through parasitism or symbiosis; these annuals include such hemiparasites as Alectrolophus, eyebright, and cowwheat, as well as such mycotrophic plants as clover, alfalfa, and gentian. As growing conditions worsen (with increasingly higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere or higher elevations in the mountains), the number of annual plants declines. Some species that are not able to complete their life cycle in harsh conditions in one year become perennials; an example is annual blue grass, which becomes a perennial in arctic and alpine settings.


a plant that completes its life cycle in less than one year
References in periodicals archive ?
Laboratory screening for allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).
Commercially produced silage classified by forage type and silage preparation Forage type Species Common name Warm-season annual Sorghum bicolor, Forage sorghum, grass Sudangrass, Sorghum x sudangrass hybrids Pennisetum glaucum Pearl millet Warm-season perennial Cynodon dactylon, Bermudagrass grass Paspalum notatum Bahiagrass Annual ryegrass Lolium multiflorum Annual ryegrass Small grain Triticum aestivum, Wheat Avena sativa, Oat Secale cereale Cereal rye Forage type Number of entry by silage preparation (1) Chopped Baleage silage Warm-season annual 86 54 grass Warm-season perennial 21 65 grass Annual ryegrass 266 799 Small grain 4 13 (1) Forage sample as identified by producers.
I've evaluated annual ryegrass overseeded into field corn and soybeans at Spring Meadow Research Farm.
This study was conducted to investigate changing nutritive value patterns and differences in fermentation aspects of annual ryegrass baleage stored at three advancing harvest stages using an in-line wrapper.
Goats were placed on annual ryegrass pastures and rotated between 2 one-ha paddocks as needed.
This has already happened with annual ryegrass in California almond orchards.
Furthermore, non-leguminous species, such as capeweed (Artotheca calendula) and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), are major components of pastures in southern Australia (Rossiter 1966).
Along with representatives of the Oregon Ryegrass Growers Seed Commission, I have just returned from a trade mission to the Midwest designed to promote the environmental benefits of planting annual ryegrass as a cover crop in corn and soybean production.
Earthworm populations differed significantly between treatments at the end of the first experimental phase, with populations largest under perennial treatments containing white clover and smallest under annual ryegrass and barley (Fig.
But this year, there's less perennial ryegrass and annual ryegrass available, farmers said, which should help push up prices.
Annual ryegrass crops were included to allow for a comparison between perennial and annual crops and to investigate the effects of tillage and direct drilling.
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