In the first part of the second century AD, an annular eclipse occurred on 121 July 2 in the south of Egypt.
1 The annular eclipse observed by an Iranian astronomer, Abu al-[sup.
2 The annular eclipse of 1147 October 26, observed in Brauweiler, Germany.
3 The annular eclipse of 1283 January 30 reported by another Iranian astronomer, Shams al-din Muhammad al-Wabkanawi al-Bukhari (1254 June 11-c.
4 The annular eclipse of 1292 January 21 observed in Beijing, China, whose report also contains a clear reference to the ring phase.
Wabkanawi seems to have presented the only scientific report of an annular eclipse in numerical details throughout the ancient and medieval periods before the Renaissance era.
Wabkanawi says (19) that on Saturday 29 Shawwal 681 H (= 1283 January 30 = JDN2189703) he observed an annular eclipse of the Sun in Mughan, a green plain located in the northwest of Iran (its geographical coordinates: [phi] = 39[degrees]N; L = 83[degrees]E of the Fortunate (Canary) Islands according to Wabkanawi; today, [phi] = 39[degrees]N; L = 47[degrees]E of Greenwich).
21) However, none of the above three conditions or similar can explain the observation of the annular eclipse of 1147 by observers in Germany.
It is entirely possible that an annular eclipse may appear as annular outside its path of annularity, where it is essentially partial.
In fact, based on available historical evidence at our disposal, it is understandable that observation of the annular eclipse of 873AD revealed the defects of Ptolemy's considerations concerning the lunar and solar apparent diameters.
The medieval astronomers' references to the Indian astronomical tradition clearly demonstrate that they attempted to 'justify' observation of the annular eclipse by means of non-Ptolemaic traditions.