antagonism


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Related to antagonism: Antagonism in Biology

antagonism

1. Physiol the normal opposition between certain muscles
2. Biology the inhibition or interference of growth of one kind of organism by another

Antagonism

 

a form of contradiction characterized by acute, irreconcilable struggle of hostile forces or tendencies. The term “antagonism” in reference to the struggle of opposing forces is used in religious systems (struggle of good and evil) by Kant, Schopenhauer, and other philosophers. The term is applied to biology and mathematics (game theory) in the same sense. Marxism, analyzing the antagonism between classes in slave-owning, feudal, and capitalist societies and in the transitional period from capitalism to socialism, has shown that antagonisms are resolved by means of the class struggle, whose forms and content are determined by the concrete, historical conditions of their development. K. Marx noted that bourgeois relations of production are the “last antagonistic form of the social process of production . . .” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch. 2nd ed. vol. 13, p.7). V. I. Lenin emphasized that “antagonism and contradiction are not one and the same thing. The former will disappear, but the latter will remain under socialism.” (Leninskii sbornik, XI, 1929, p. 357.)

L. M. NAUMOV

antagonism

[an′tag·ə‚niz·əm]
(biology)
Mutual opposition as seen between organisms, muscles, physiologic actions, and drugs.
Opposing action between drugs and disease or drugs and functions.
References in periodicals archive ?
The workerist gambit--later radicalized in the theories of workers' autonomy and self-valorization--lay in arguing that one can move beyond a treatment of the dynamic of capitalism solely in terms of exploitation and the vampire-like 'absorption' of living labour as variable capital into the process of production, to a consideration of the driving importance of the subjectivity and organization of the working class, shifting analyses of the transformations of capitalism firmly onto the level of a materially and temporally determinate antagonism.
It is not as large as Northern Ontario, but certainly subject to the same kind of sense of difference and, at times, frictions and even antagonisms between different parts of the region I was working in.
Secondary receptor properties shared by some of these drugs may be sedating and may interfere with the drugs' procognitive actions Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonism seen with olanzapine and quetiapine may interfere with procholinergic actions on acetylcholine release related to improved cognition.
I will conclude with a caution against universalizing racial antagonism, a caution informed by the lessons of class analysis: Locating racial differences or racism outside of historical processes, as an explanation for human action, rather than something needing to be explained, as some sort of epiphenomenon or essence, or in the abstract and desembodied realm of "attitudes" and atavisms, is both to abdicate the historian's responsibility to explain through the analysis of historical evidence, and to despair of remedies for racism, racial conflict, and racial subordination.
Supposedly aimed at protecting personal information, the progress of the new privacy bill has blown open the gulf between those media groups that clearly form part of the establishment, and those that make their living from exposure of scandal and direct antagonism to it.
During 2003, nearly 12,000 law enforcement agencies identified 7,489 criminal incidents that were motivated by the offender's irrational antagonism toward some personal attribute associated with the victim.
Although the in vitro data regarding antagonism between stavudine and zidovudine were conflicting, Havlir and colleagues demonstrated that these drugs administered in combination to patients resulted in limited reductions in levels of plasma HIV RNA, which suggested an in vivo antagonism between stavudine and zidovudine.
Although the in vitro data regarding this antagonism were conflicting, Havlir and colleagues demonstrated that these drugs administered in combination resulted in limited reductions in patients' levels of plasma HIV RNA, which suggested an in vivo antagonism between stavudine and zidovudine.
The political and religious tensions between Jews and Arabs are played out in another patient's (Tzahi) antagonism towards Samir.
A fruit picker who allegedly started a fire at an Australian hostel killing 15 travellers, including two from South Wales, had "expressed antagonism to backpackers in general" before the blaze, a prosecutor said today.
It also cautions against disregard for cultural and religious identities, which leads "to mutual exclusiveness and antagonism.
Such conditions, coupled with the growth of inequality, have laid the basis for long-term social disruption and inter-regional antagonism, and a consequent lessening of the chances for creating a stable democratic system.