antagonism


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Related to antagonism: Antagonism in Biology

antagonism

1. Physiol the normal opposition between certain muscles
2. Biology the inhibition or interference of growth of one kind of organism by another

Antagonism

 

a form of contradiction characterized by acute, irreconcilable struggle of hostile forces or tendencies. The term “antagonism” in reference to the struggle of opposing forces is used in religious systems (struggle of good and evil) by Kant, Schopenhauer, and other philosophers. The term is applied to biology and mathematics (game theory) in the same sense. Marxism, analyzing the antagonism between classes in slave-owning, feudal, and capitalist societies and in the transitional period from capitalism to socialism, has shown that antagonisms are resolved by means of the class struggle, whose forms and content are determined by the concrete, historical conditions of their development. K. Marx noted that bourgeois relations of production are the “last antagonistic form of the social process of production . . .” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch. 2nd ed. vol. 13, p.7). V. I. Lenin emphasized that “antagonism and contradiction are not one and the same thing. The former will disappear, but the latter will remain under socialism.” (Leninskii sbornik, XI, 1929, p. 357.)

L. M. NAUMOV

antagonism

[an′tag·ə‚niz·əm]
(biology)
Mutual opposition as seen between organisms, muscles, physiologic actions, and drugs.
Opposing action between drugs and disease or drugs and functions.
References in classic literature ?
Differences in politics, in ethics and even in aesthetics need not arouse angry antagonism.
And therefore when Hellenes fight with barbarians and barbarians with Hellenes, they will be described by us as being at war when they fight, and by nature enemies, and this kind of antagonism should be called war; but when Hellenes fight with one another we shall say that Hellas is then in a state of disorder and discord, they being by nature friends and such enmity is to be called discord.
He did not wait for the bull to reach him, for something in the appearance or the voice of the attacker aroused within the ape-man a feeling of belligerent antagonism that would not be denied.
Smythe, however, made no allusion to the ultimate ground of their antagonism, but said simply and explosively, "Has Miss Hope seen that thing on the window?
The antagonism of the two tendencies is not less active in individuals, as the love of adventure or the love of repose happens to predominate.
But sharp differentiation also implies antagonism in some form or other--hence Nietzsche's fears for modern men.
He saw that Russia has splendid land, splendid laborers, and that in certain cases, as at the peasant's on the way to Sviazhsky's, the produce raised by the laborers and the land is great--in the majority of cases when capital is applied in the European way the produce is small, and that this simply arises from the fact that the laborers want to work and work well only in their own peculiar way, and that this antagonism is not incidental but invariable, and has its roots in the national spirit.
The old sex antagonism which she had always experienced with men seemed to have vanished.
Always there had been something that jarred, a subtle antagonism.
On the candid light of the eyes flitted shadows; shadows of doubt, of suspicion, the ready suspicion of an unquenchable antagonism, the pitiless mistrust of an eternal instinct of defence; the hate, the profound, frightened hate of an incomprehensible--of an abominable emotion intruding its coarse materialism upon the spiritual and tragic contest of her feelings.
Arthur fancied that he heard in these praises a certain tone of custom, which he had heard from the father last night with an inward protest and feeling of antagonism.
I say adversaries, for on recalling such proud memories we should avoid the word "enemies," whose hostile sound perpetuates the antagonisms and strife of nations, so irremediable perhaps, so fateful - and also so vain.