antidepressant

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Related to antidepressive: Antidepressant drugs, Antidepressive agents

antidepressant,

any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapypsychotherapy,
treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods.
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. Before the introduction of such drugs in the late 1950s, most patients with major depression had no recourse but hospitalization; only 45% improved after one year. In contrast, 80%–90% of such patients can expect significant relief from depression with one of the medications now prescribed.

Antidepressants act on the flow of the neurotransmitters epinephrineepinephrine
, hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholamine, together with norepinephrine, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
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, serotoninserotonin
, organic compound that was first recognized as a powerful vasoconstrictor occurring in blood serum. It was partially purified, crystallized, and named in 1948, and its structure was deduced a year later.
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, and norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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 across neural synapsessynapse
, junction between various signal-transmitter cells, either between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle or gland. A nerve impulse reaches the synapse through the axon, or transmitting end, of a nerve cell, or neuron.
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. Common antidepressants include monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tricyclics such as imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline (Elavil), and the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline HCL (Zoloft). Venlafaxine (Effexor) inhibits both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.

The choice of antidepressant often has more to do with its side effects (variously sedation, constipation, hypotension, tachycardia, weight gain, sexual dysfunction) than efficacy, as they are generally regarded to be equally effective. The newer drugs, especially SSRIs, are tolerated better and are currently by far the most widely prescribed, but SSRIs also appear to be less effective in children and teenagers and may cause some of them to become suicidal.

antidepressant

[‚an·tē·di′pres·ənt]
(pharmacology)
A drug, such as imipramine and tranylcypromine, that relieves depression by increasing central sympathetic activity.

antidepressant

any of a class of drugs used to alleviate depression
References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical consequences and implications for antidepressive treatment.
The combination of MAO inhibitors such as some [beta]-carbolines with monoaminergic and serotoninergic substances like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tryptophan or antidepressives in general could potentially produce the serotonin syndrome (dos Santos In press[b]; Frecska 2007; Boyer & Shannon 2005; Callaway 2002; Callaway & Grob 1998; Hilton, Maradit & Moller 1997).
No significant differences were observed between patients with and without antidepressive medication in demographic variables (sex, age, educational level, occupation, and civil status).
a m sui (seek It acts through several well-known antidepressive mechanisms in the brain, on which other antidepressant drugs also act.
A titre d'exemple, les alterations de l'inhibition cognitive chez les patients ages deprimes ont ete associees a une reponse antidepressive faible et inconstante (Alexopoulos et al.
Treating depression can improve ART adherence, and antidepressive medication is superior to psychotherapeutic interventions for this purpose.
It is important to remember that just eating foods that may improve mood is not a substitute for prescribed antidepressive drugs," Martinez-Mayorga cautioned.
Treatment with antidepressive drugs improved quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients.
34) Taylor KM, Randall PK: Depletion of S-adenosylmethionine in mouse brain by antidepressive drugs.
More-over, an increasing number of studies suggest that it provides an earlier recovery after ECT, and has the potential to reduce retrograde amnesia and accelerate the clinical response to ECT due to its antidepressive action (3-8).
The mice that were given both an NSAID and an SSRI like performed less well on a test thought to correlate with antidepressive behavior, "but an exact connection to human behavior is not clearly shown," says Dr.