antidiuretic hormone


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antidiuretic hormone

(ăn'tēdīyo͞orĕt`ĭk), polypeptide hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary glandpituitary gland,
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system).
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. Its principal action is to regulate the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), known also as vasopressin, causes the kidneys to resorb water directly from the renal tubules, thus concentrating the salts and waste products in the liquid, which will eventually become urine. ADH secretion by the pituitary is regulated by neural connections from the hypothalamus, which is believed to monitor either the volume of blood passing through it or the concentration of water in the blood. Dehydration or body stress will raise ADH secretion and water will be retained. Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion. Failure of the pituitary to produce ADH results in diabetes insipidus. In pharmacological doses ADH acts as a vasoconstrictor. The structure and chemical synthesis of ADH was announced (1953) by Nobel laureate Vincent Du Vigneaud and others.

antidiuretic hormone

[¦an·tē‚dī·yə¦red·ik ′hȯr‚mōn]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
A syndrome of renal sodium loss and hyponatremia probably resulting from inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
Meningeal carcinomatosis and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone in a patient with metastatic carcinoma of the stomach.
Children who undergo surgical procedures are at particular risk for hyponatremia because of the association between anesthetic agents/opiates and nonosmotic antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia is thought to result from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
Nephrogenic, which is caused by a decreased ability of the kidneys to respond to antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone in children with viral meningitis.
Based on its proposed mechanism of action and as seen in early studies, lixivaptan has shown promise in treatment of disease states associated with water retention and/or electrolyte imbalance such as hypervolemic hyponatremia commonly associated with heart failure (HF) or the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).
Copeptin, a fragment of prepro-vasopressin that is more stable and easier to measure than the vasoconstricting and antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, has been linked to excess mortality at all stages of chronic HF and was shown to be superior to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (13-14).
When there is a large amount of urine produced at night by the kidney, a synthetic antidiuretic hormone medication called desmopressin can be prescribed to decrease the amount of urine produced.
5) Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), advanced kidney failure, hypothyroidism(2) and cancer(6) are common causes of hyponatremia.
When the desmopressin was discontinued, the polyuria did not worsen, suggesting a response to endogenous antidiuretic hormone.
The study excluded patients with liver cirrhosis or the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

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