antigen

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Related to antigen receptors: B cell receptors

antigen:

see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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Antigen

A substance that initiates and mediates the formation of the corresponding immune body, termed antibody. Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. Antigen-antibody reactions serve as host defenses against microorganisms and other foreign bodies, or are used in laboratory tests for detecting the presence of either antigen or antibody. See Antibody, Antigen-antibody reaction

A protein immunogen (any substance capable of inducing an immune response) is usually composed of a large number of antigenic determinants. Thus, immunizing an animal with a protein results in the formation of a number of antibody molecules with different specificities. The antigenicity of a protein is determined by its sequence of amino acids as well as by its conformation. Antigens may be introduced into an animal by ingestion, inhalation, sometimes by contact with skin, or more regularly by injection into the bloodstream, skin, peritoneum, or other body part.

With a few exceptions, such as the autoantigens and the isoantigens of the blood groups, antigens produce antibody only in species other than the ones from which they are derived. All complete proteins are antigenic, as are many bacterial and other polysaccharides, some nucleic acids, and some lipids. Antigenicity may be modified or abolished by chemical treatments, including degradation or enzymatic digestion; it may be notably increased by the incorporation of antigen into oils or other adjuvants. See Isoantigen

Bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and other microorganisms are important sources of antigens. These may be proteins or polysaccharides derived from the outer surfaces of the cell (capsular antigens), from the cell interior (the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). Other antigens either are excreted by the cell or are released into the medium during cell death and disruption; these include many enzymes and toxins, of which diphtheria, tetanus, and botulinus toxins are important examples. The presence of antibody to one of these constituent antigens in human or animal sera is presumptive evidence of past or present contact with specific microorganisms, and this finds application in clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. See Botulism, Diphtheria, Toxin

Microbial antigens prepared to induce protective antibodies are termed vaccines. They may consist of either attenuated living or killed whole cells, or extracts of these. Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. Examples of these are smallpox vaccine, a living attenuated virus; typhoid vaccine, killed bacterial cells; and diphtheria toxoid, detoxified culture fluid. Several independent vaccines may be mixed to give a combined vaccine, and thus reduce the number of injections necessary for immunization, but such mixing can result in a lesser response to each component of the mixture. See Vaccination

Allergens are antigens that induce allergic states in humans or animals. Examples are preparations from poison ivy, cottonseed, or horse dander, or simple chemicals such as formaldehyde or picryl chloride. See Hypersensitivity, Immunology

antigen

[′an·tə·jən]
(immunology)
A substance which reacts with the products of specific humoral or cellular immunity, even those induced by related heterologous immunogens.

antigen

a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
References in periodicals archive ?
T Cells Engineered With a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Targeting CD19 (CTL019) Produce Significant In Vivo Proliferation, Complete Responses and Long-Term Persistence Without GVHD in Children and Adults With Relapsed, Refractory ALL[ 67 ]
This study report, which provides select results from a group of cell therapy trials conducted by investigators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania, used the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cell engineering approach to manipulate the T cells of 22 children and five adults with relapsed, treatment-resistant acute lymphocytic leukemia.
2]T Cells with Chimeric Antigen Receptors Have Potent Antitumor Effects and Can Establish Memory in Patients with Advanced Leukemia.
Chimeric antigen receptor T cell based immunotherapy constitutes a novel, individualized method of combating cancers.
Forward-looking statements include statements about Sorrento's prospects, including, but not limited to any statements about the NanoVelcro Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) assay technology; chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell programs; potential combination therapies, Sorrento's expectations for adoptive cellular immunotherapies, Sorrento's collaborations with NantKwest, NantCell, NantPharma and NantBioScience, and the development of adoptive immunotherapies and the biosimilar/biobetter programs; Sorrento's ability to leverage the expertise of its employees and partners to assist the company in the execution of its strategies; Sorrento's advances made in developing RTX, CAR.
CAR T cell Genetically engineered T cells with surface receptors (called chimeric antigen receptors or CARs) that bind to a specific antigen on tumor cells.
This high false-negative rate likely occurs because of the inability of consensus V primers to recognize complementary DNA sequences in all of the V segments and because of the inability of V and J primers to recognize genetic alterations such as partial rearrangements (DJ rearrangements) and chromosomal translocations and somatic mutations involving the antigen receptor gene loci [14,18].
In addition, subject to the terms of the agreement, Lilly will make a $30 million equity investment in BioNTech's subsidiary, Cell & Gene Therapies GmbH, which specializes in the research and development of TCR and chimeric antigen receptor immunotherapeutics.
Under the terms of the agreement, the companies worked together to define important characteristics of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) to develop a foundation for drug discovery targeted at autoimmune disorders.
Signaling Domain of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Can Reprogram T Cells (Abstract #551; December 8, 3:45 PM)[sup.
In both models, administration of the peptides resulted in reduced titres of anti-AChR antibodies and lower numbers of anti-AChR T-cells, based on the induction of antibodies that bound to the corresponding B and T cell antigen receptors.
26, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- CARsgen, a leader in the development of Chimeric Antigen Receptors T (CAR-T) cell immunotherapy to treat a variety of cancers, today announced the completion of a series A financing led by BVCF, a China-based healthcare private equity fund.