These NSTs are antiporters
in which nucleotide sugar entry into the ER/Golgi is coupled to equimolar exit of the corresponding nucleoside monophosphate from the ER/Golgi lumen (38).
activity of mammalian CLC proteins ClC-4 and ClC-5.
L is an antiporter
, which exchanges cationic amino acids for large neutral amino acids, cotransported with [Na.
(NHE) is a transport protein hypothesized to be involved in acid-base regulation across fish gill epithelia.
In HT22 cells, excessive glutamate inhibits the glutamate/cystein antiporter
and leads to the decrease in intracellular cysteine and the depletion of glutathione.
Glutamate acts as neurotransmitter via three classes of membrane proteins: ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and the cystine/glutamate antiporter
is not probable, since the urine pH was similar between rats given water or corn silk extract (Table 2).
Studies (26,27) indicate that apo E may play a role in regulating calcium homeostasis, and therefore impacting neuronal regulation of various ion-independent receptors, including K+ antiporters
Tables summarize clinical trials with drugs targeting ionic channels, antiporters
, and pumps in ischemic stroke.
Maduke's interest in the CLC family is that half of the members are chloride channels, while the other half are chloride-proton antiporters
Nucleotide sugars enter the lumen of the Golgi via specific antiporters
Some of them are heavy-metal ATPases, natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs), cation diffusion facilitators, the Zrt- and Irt- like proteins family, and the cation antiporters
(Hall & Williams, 2003).