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a term denoting the ancient, the very old.

In a broad sense antiquity is completely equal to the Russian word drevnost’, but it is most often used for a special purpose, wherein it means the same as drevnost’ but is applied to ancient Greece (including Hellenism) and ancient Rome.

From the Renaissance, when interest in the Greco-Roman antiquities was very great (people gathered and collected works of ancient art and texts of ancient authors, in addition to studying the history and literature of ancient Greece and Rome), there arose such concepts as ancient (antique) art, ancient literature, ancient history, ancient philosophy, and ancient culture.

With the growth of interest in socioeconomic history such concepts also arose as the ancient city and the ancient economic system, as well as concepts introduced by K. Marx: the ancient means of production and the ancient form of property. As Marx noted, the ancient form of property always manifested itself in a contradictory, dualistic form: as state (jointly owned) property and as private property. As a rule, moreover, the latter was conditioned by and dependent upon the former. Only an owner of a main means of production (land) could be a fully entitled member of the civic community—the polis. The ancient world also knew other types of state structure, but the polis was the most defined form.

Of very great historical importance in ancient society was the rise of democracy, under the conditions of which fully entitled citizens participated in political life and the governing of the state. A component of the polis structure, without which it would have been unthinkable in general, was the people’s assembly; however, the degree of democratization was different in various poleis. Despite the fact that it was a democracy of only a privileged minority of the free population, polis democracy was a large step forward for its time. Such ancient communities as a number of the Greek states (Athens, Corinth, and others) as well as Rome, were at a certain period of their development characterized by a profound penetration of slave labor in their basic branches of production. Slave labor thus became, if not the only force, at least one of the chief productive forces.

In ancient society permanent universal values were created, and high stages of development were attained in philosophy, literature, the pictorial arts, and architecture in ancient Greece and Rome.


Marx, K. “Formy, predshestvuishchie kapitalisticheskomu proizvodstvu.” In K. Marx and F. Engels. Soch.,2nd ed., vol. 46, part 1.
Marx, K. “K kritike politicheskoi ekonomii.” Ibid., vol. 13.
“Iz rukopisnogo nasledstva K. Marksa: Vvedenie.” Ibid., vol. 12.
Engels, F. “Anti-Diuring.” Ibid., vol. 20.
Engels, F. “Proiskhozhdenie sem’i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva.” Ibid., vol. 21.
Marx, K., and F. Engels. Ob antichnosti. Leningrad, 1932.
Kovalev, S. I. “Uchenie Marksa i Engel’sa ob antichnom sposobe proizvodstva.” Izvestiia Gosudarstvennoi akademii istorii material’noi kul’tury,1932, vol. 12, nos. 9–10.
Utchenko, S. L., and E. M. Shtaerman. “O nekotorykh voprosakh istorii rabstva.” Vestnik drevnei istorii,1960, no. 4.


References in periodicals archive ?
He also commended the smooth and speedy delivery of the antiquities away from complex administrative procedures.
They include a recovered antiquities exhibition, one on latest archaeological discoveries, a historical photo gallery, a Saudi Geological Survey exhibition, a commemorative stamp show, a fine arts exhibition and a Saudi handicraft show.
Demetriades said that there is complete cooperation between everyone involved in this project to ensure the protection of the antiquities.
They date from a time when archaeological material, after a stringent review, did not have to remain exclusively in the hands ofthe Egyptian Antiquities Organization (now the Supreme Council of Antiquities).
This edition has information from beginning of the human being era to territorial antiquities and other facts.
Despite these new rules, looted antiquities continued to make their way into American collections and museums, encouraged in part by the acquisition guidelines followed by the Association of Art Museum Directors, whose membership numbered fewer than 200, but included all of our country's major antiquities-collecting museums.
Authorities have said that it is difficult to know how many antiquities have gone to ISIS.
This is part of the proposed amendments to the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972 which have been in planning since 1987.
The meeting, titled "Culture Under Threat: the Fight to Save the Middle East's Antiquities from Terrorism", was held on the sidelines of the 70th session of the UN General Assembly, currently underway in New York.
She added that smuggling antiquities aims to finance extremists, stressing the necessity that EU countries adopt tougher legislations against antiquities smuggling operations.
The IAA's Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Robbery arrested six suspects overnight Tuesday/Wednesday for attempted robbery to the cave, including the man, all four children, and a family friend.
DAMASCUS: Around 15,000 antiquities locked away in safes around the northwestern Syrian city of Idlib are at risk of being sold on the black market, the head of antiquities and museums Maamoun Abdel-Karim told Reuters Friday.