aorist


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aorist:

see tensetense
[O.Fr., from Lat.,=time], in the grammar of many languages, a category of time distinctions expressed by any conjugated form of a verb. In Latin inflection the tense of a verb is indicated by a suffix that also indicates the verb's voice, mood, person, and number.
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Aorist

 

a grammatical tense characteristic of several languages (Greek, Old Indo-European, Old Slavic, Old Russian, and others).

The aorist designates a completed action in the past—for example, the Old Slavic polozhikh b (I placed), as compared with the past imperfect tense, polagaakh b (I was placing). Inasmuch as the aorist expresses completed action, in those languages which have grammatical aspect it is most often formed from the verb stems of the perfective aspect. Aorists based on stems of the imperfective aspect designate a prolonged action. It is supposed that the meaning of the aorist as a past tense developed relatively late in the Indo-European languages and that originally the aorist form expressed an aspect designating in this instance a non-prolonged or instantaneous action regardless of tense. The term “aorist” is also used in certain languages to designate an aspect form which simply states an action without providing any indication of its length in time. For example, in aboriginal languages the aorist designates an action in process without any indication of the time of its completion.

References in periodicals archive ?
In the same way, the perfect with state verbs based on the complexive use of the aorist (as akekoa above) can be analyzed in an XN-interpretation.
One of the weaknesses of previous research on the categorial status of the 'adjectival' participle is that it does not take into account either the perfect or the aorist participle (which, as mentioned above, could also be used for adjectival periphrasis).
sentence 3 and the statement for attested evidence [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'Stoyan spoke yesterday at the meeting (and I saw him)', where the aorist has to be used).
I believe that Dahl's conclusion as to the temporal and aspectual values of the Rigvedic present, aorist, and perfect systems are essentially correct and that further research may refine but not shake them.
If we take Kornfilt's (1996: 104-109) own assumptions to distinguish between genuine verbal forms from participle forms, those forms terminated by the necessitative marker tend to behave unlike participle forms (those that end in progressive, aorist, past participle, future markers) but more like "genuine" forms.
Indeed, this situation is due, on the one hand, to the actual formal structure of the forms ehi- and kohl-, which must have constituted the starting point for the creation of the new formation, and, on the other hand, to the appearance of a morphological connection between 'Vsi aorists and -hi- future.
As explained above, the aspectual opposition between the Greek aorist and the imperfect was neutralized in the case of verbs introducing direct speech, and therefore, these verbs are not good objects for the study of aspectual correspondences between Greek and Syriac.
This leveling started from the aorist subjunctive and the future indicative, and it gradually expanded to all tenses and aspects.
This claim depends on the definition of "infinitive:" in the verbal paradigm, nonfinite forms are used in complex predicates, for example, the aorist infinitives xasi (active) and xa[?
11) Al-though the noun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not used in a religious sense until the Hellenistic period, (12) divine epiphanies could instead be marked by a remarkably consistent vocabulary and set of "epiphanic protocols" for describing a three-step process: the moment of divine self-revelation (usually expressed by [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the middle voice), mortal perception (most typically expressed by the aorist of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and/or the noun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and, finally, recognition (often expressed by [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).
The author does not use the future tense here but uses the aorist (past) tense for the verb meaning "to reconcile" or "to restore harmony" in Col.
Based on the contrastive analysis hypothesis, three possible explanations may account for the error of alternating tenses: The fact that Arabic has only two tenses of preterit and aorist (Sterling, 1904), or perfect or imperfect (Wright, 1967) makes action, not time, indicated in Arabic sentences, as in the following simple examples: