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An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that primarily serves to indicate either grammatical possession or the contraction of two words. It can also sometimes be used to pluralize irregular nouns, such as single letters, abbreviations, and single-digit numbers.
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see punctuationpunctuation
[Lat.,=point], the use of special signs in writing to clarify how words are used; the term also refers to the signs themselves. In every language, besides the sounds of the words that are strung together there are other features, such as tone, accent, and pauses,
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; abbreviationabbreviation,
in writing, arbitrary shortening of a word, usually by cutting off letters from the end, as in U.S. and Gen. (General). Contraction serves the same purpose but is understood strictly to be the shortening of a word by cutting out letters in the middle, the omission
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figure of speech in which an absent person, a personified inanimate being, or an abstraction is addressed as though present. The term is derived from a Greek word meaning "a turning away," and this sense is maintained when a narrative or dramatic thread is broken in order to digress by speaking directly to someone not there, e.g., "Envy, be silent and attend!"—Alexander Pope, "On a Certain Lady at Court."



comma written above the line, used in writing for various functions: (1) In French, Italian, English, and other languages the apostrophe is used to indicate the omission of a vowel (the French I’homme instead of le homme, the English “don’t” instead of “do not,” and so on).

(2) In the orthography of the Nenets language it is used to indicate glottal stops.

(3) The apostrophe is used in transcription to convey glottal stops (in Semitic and other languages), to indicate soft consonants, and so on.

(4) In Russian writing it is used in places where foreign languages use apostrophes in proper names (Jeanne d’Arc, O’Casey); in the 1920’s and 1930’s the apostrophe was also used in place of the “hard sign” Ъ (pod’ezd instead of podЪezd).



a word or group of words naming the person or object to which speech is addressed. Apostrophe may be used within or outside a sentence. It is not bound grammatically to the other parts of a sentence. Apostrophe is widely used in literary language to convey dialogue. For example:

(Famusov:) “Sergei Sergeich, can this be you!”

A. S. Griboedov, Woe From Wit

It is also used in the speech of the narrator to address an individual. For example:

“And you, exile,” I thought, “weep on your vast, free steppes.”

M. Iu. Lermontov, Bela

Or it may be used to address an inanimate object:

“Loosen up, shoulder! Swing, arm!

You, wind, blow in the face from afternoon on!”

A. V. Kol’tsov, “The Mower”


References in periodicals archive ?
Indeed, Jakob's continual talks to the dead function like an apostrophic testimony that Auerhahn and Laub describe in their Holocaust oral history project.
The lyrics call to you, the listener, or an apostrophic placeholder summons "you" using the familiar tu form of intimate address.
The apostrophic poems in Idyls of Battle thus turn away from the high-profile faces of the nation recognized in the volume's preface in order to recognize its more marginalized and silent figures.
It is animated by both contempt for others and apostrophic self-contempt.
As Char indicated in fragment 194, writing, even writing to remember others, necessarily includes forgetting, and the poet's apostrophic move in fragment 220 hints at how this kind of productive forgetting might function in relation to moving forward after the war.
A bland and insignificant allusion to pastoral oaten pipes in the shorter version (see Smith 243) is expanded in the longer version into an allusion to the music of the spheres and rendered structurally pivotal, becoming a break-point in the argument (25-26), prompting Dorinda's ecstatic apostrophic conversion: "Oh sweet
create tension and ambiguity by allowing both narrative closure and apostrophic openness," writes the critic James A Davies in a discussion of Dylan Thomas' keynote poem in Deaths and Entrances.
This third-person narration recounts a meeting of the now mutually passionate lovers, and leads to an apostrophic address by Astrophil.
Victor's apostrophic addresses to nature and to the monster himself seem to demonstrate a depletion of life even in the act of giving life; "they interrupt the 'recovery' that they aim to commemorate or affirm" (78).
The central sentence in which Alberti describes his garden in Buenos Aires is preceded by the Puerto de Santa Maria past and followed by ah apostrophic reference to the arboleda, which is the space that writing seeks to recreate, but which remains absent: "
Reading the politico-artistic intervention of the internationally renowned guerilla artist Banksy as an apostrophic act, Joseph Pugliese stages a profound and complex genealogical reading of two seemingly incommensurable sites and subjects--detainees and inflatable dolls, Guantanamo Bay and Disneyland.
After reviewing the examples of animal sculpture on display, he concludes abruptly with the following apostrophic comment to his reader: "Sans nous arreter plus longtemps a la menagerie, au chenil, a la voliere, retournons a l'homme, qui est le but le plus noble que l'art et surtout la statuaire puisse se proposer.