appeal

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appeal,

in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court. The party appealing the decision is known as the appellant, the party who has won the case in the lower court as the appellee. The term is also sometimes used to describe the review by a court of the action of a government board or administrative officer. Appellate procedure is set by statute. There are two types of errors, of fact and of law. An error of fact is drawing a false inference from evidence presented at the trial. An error of law is an erroneous determination of the legal rules governing procedureprocedure,
in law, the rules that govern the obtaining of legal redress. This article deals only with civil procedure in Anglo-American law (for criminal procedure, see criminal law).
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, evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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, or the matters at issue between the parties. Ordinarily, only errors of law may be reviewed in appeal. In an appeal from an action tried in equityequity,
principles of justice originally developed by the English chancellor. In Anglo-American jurisprudence equitable principles and remedies are distinguished from the older system that the common law courts evolved.
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, however, the appellate court passes on the entire record, both as to facts and law. Should the appeals court conclude that no error was committed, it will affirm the decision of the lower court. If it finds that there was error, it may direct a retrial or grant a judgmentjudgment,
decision of a court of law respecting the issues before it. The term ordinarily is not applied to the decree (order) of courts of equity. The outstanding characteristic of a legal judgment, in contrast to an equitable decree, is its finality and fixity; thus, except
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 or decreedecree,
in law, decision of a suit in a court of equity. It is the counterpart in equity of the judgment in a court of law, although in those jurisdictions where law and equity have merged, judgment is sometimes used to include both.
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 in favor of the party who lost in the lower court. The determinations of appeals courts are usually printed, often with an opinion indicating the basis for the court's decisions. Such opinions are of great utility in guiding the inferior courts and are often cited as precedents in future cases. See also habeas corpushabeas corpus
[Lat.,=you should have the body], writ directed by a judge to some person who is detaining another, commanding him to bring the body of the person in his custody at a specified time to a specified place for a specified purpose.
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.

Appeal

 

(juridical), one of the forms of appealing judicial decisions that have not become res judicata in criminal and civil proceedings.

In the appeal procedure, the next higher court examines the merits of the decision of a lower court, reviewing anew the investigation of the evidence presented in the case and any new evidence that may be presented. After this, the higher court will either affirm the appealed decision or, having reversed it, will render a new decision. This distinguishes an appeal from a cassation, which means in bourgeois states that a higher court cannot render a new decision but can only cancel the appealed decision or direct the lower court to retry the case. In an appeal, a court’s decision is reviewed not merely in terms of isolated procedures but on the merit of the case as a whole—including the guilt or innocence of the defendant, the punitive measure, the recovery or dismissal, and the amount sought in the suit. The decision resulting from an appeal procedure is usually subject to a cassation appeal (with a few exceptions).

The appeal form developed in France during the period of the consolidation of absolutism, since an appeal made it possible to transfer a case from the courts of the local feudal lords to royal courts. In bourgeois states, as a rule, all judicial decisions can be appealed, aside from jury trials and such exceptions as court-martials. Only in Great Britain, by a law passed in 1907, are appeals of jury verdicts allowed. Moreover, in reviewing a case, the appellate court has the right to make worse the position of the parties—for example, by increasing the punitive measure. The introduction of appeals of decisions arising out of jury trials in Great Britain was a departure even from the bourgeois-democratic foundations of the judicial process, since the jury trial in bourgeois countries is the sole form of the general population’s participation in administration of justice. Under an appeal system, the center of proceedings is shifted to the appellate court. This essentially limits the importance of the courts of first instance, which are usually more accessible to the population from the point of view of publicity of the judicial proceedings.

In the USSR, the appeal procedure was abolished by the First Decree on the Courts of Nov. 22, 1917, since it was regarded as an institution that could not be conducive to the consolidation of the authority of the new people’s courts. In contemporary Soviet procedure there are only isolated elements of appeal procedure. For example, article 46 of the Fundamentals of Civil Procedure of the USSR and the Union Republics (1961) allows the next higher court to render a new decision if the case requires no gathering or additional checking of evidence and the circumstances of the case were fully and correctly established by the court of first instance but some error in applying the law has occurred. Such a formulation does not undermine the authority and importance of decisions rendered by lower courts, primarily by raion or city people’s courts—the basic units of the Soviet judicial system. The form of appealing court decisions in the USSR is that of cassation.

T. N. DOBROVOL’SKAIA.

appeal

1. Law
a. the judicial review by a superior court of the decision of a lower tribunal
b. a request for such review
c. the right to such review
2. Cricket a verbal request to the umpire from one or more members of the fielding side to declare a batsman out
3. English law (formerly) a formal charge or accusation
References in classic literature ?
Only these actors were appearing in their proper persons in real dramas of a life he did not know, but which appealed to something that had been long untouched, long in disuse.
At last, when he appealed by name to Monsieur Lorry, an English gentleman then and there present, who, like himself, had been a witness on that English trial and could corroborate his account of it, the Jury declared that they had heard enough, and that they were ready with their votes if the President were content to receive them.
Each maintained his opinion with sufficient obstinacy, as is usual in all such cases; the attendants were appealed to, but they had not been near enough to hear Wamba's directions.
Then she paused; considered; looked bewildered; and at last appealed piteously to Agatha.
And he appealed to me, whether in those countries I had travelled, as well as my own, I had not observed the same general disposition.
The moment Alice appeared, she was appealed to by all three to settle the question, and they repeated their arguments to her, though, as they all spoke at once, she found it very hard indeed to make out exactly what they said.
From the omnipotence of Parliament the colonists appealed to the rights of man and the omnipotence of the God of battles.
All these questions and answers passed through my mind in a moment; but the oaths of Don Fernando, the witnesses he appealed to, the tears he shed, and lastly the charms of his person and his high-bred grace, which, accompanied by such signs of genuine love, might well have conquered a heart even more free and coy than mine- these were the things that more than all began to influence me and lead me unawares to my ruin.
Let experience, the least fallible guide of human opinions, be appealed to for an answer to these inquiries.
My quarters would have been suitable for housing the greatest of earthly emperors, but to these queer creatures nothing about a building appealed to them but its size and the enormity of its chambers; the larger the building, the more desirable; and so Tal Hajus occupied what must have been an enormous public building, the largest in the city, but entirely unfitted for residence purposes; the next largest was reserved for Lorquas Ptomel, the next for the jed of a lesser rank, and so on to the bottom of the list of five jeds.
The constant battle of wits and senses against the many deadly foes that lurked by day and by night along the pathway of the wary and the unwary appealed to the spirit of adventure which breathes strong in the heart of every red-blooded son of primordial Adam.