apperception


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apperception

[‚ap·ər′sep·shən]
(psychology)
Perception as modified and enhanced by one's own emotions, memories, and biases.

apperception

(PHILOSOPHY) the mind's perception of itself. In various ways, apperception has been one important method in which philosophy has sought to ground knowledge.

Apperception

 

a fundamental property of human psychology, expressed in the conditionality of the perception of objects and phenomena of the outer world and the dependence of this perception on the general characteristics of one’s psychic life as a whole, one’s store of knowledge, and one’s concrete personality conditions.

The term “apperception” was introduced by G. Leibniz (New Essays on Human Understanding, Moscow-Leningrad, 1936, p. 20) to designate the process whereby an impression that has not yet reached consciousness is admitted into consciousness. This defined the first aspect of apperception: the transition of the sensed and unconscious (sensation or impression) to the rational and conscious (perception, conception, or thought).

I. Kant pointed out that the activity of reason synthesizes isolated elements of sensations, thereby always lending a certain wholeness to perceptions. To designate the connection and unity of perceptions in the consciousness, Kant introduced the concept of synthetic unity of apperception, that is, the unity of the process of perception. On the level of sensation this unity is ensured by reason, which is “the a priori ability to connect the [contents] of the varied data of the perception and to synthesize them in the unity of apperception” (Soch., vol. 3, Moscow, 1964, p. 193). Kant called the synthesis from already existing notions transcendental apperception.

In the 19th century J. F. Herbart used the concept of apperception to explain the fact that the content of a new notion is determined by the store of already existing notions. W. Wundt, who popularized the concept of apperception in psychology, used it to unite all three aspects: the admission into consciousness of perceptions, their integrity, and their dependence on previous experience. He explained the selective character of consciousness and behavior through apperception.

In modern psychology the concept of apperception expresses the well-established fact that different individuals (and even the same individual at different times) may perceive the same object differently and, conversely, different objects may be perceived as one. This is so because the perception of an object is not a simple mirror reflection but a construction of an image and is influenced by an individual’s sensorimotor and categorial schemes, his store of knowledge, and so on. This fact gives rise to the distinction between stable apperception (which depends on the individual’s world view and general personality structure) and temporary apperception (which depends on his mood, the situational attitude to what is perceived, and so on); these two types of perceptions are closely intermingled in any discrete act of perception. The concepts of gestalt and of set, which express different aspects of an individual’s activity, are variations of the idea of apperception.

REFERENCES

Ivanovskii, V. “K voprosu ob appertseptsii.” Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii, 1897, no. 1.
Rubinshtein, S. L. Osnovy obshchei psikhologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1946. Pages 50–58, 241.
Metzger, W. Psychologie. Darmstadt, 1954. Pages 100, 128.

V. A. KOSTELOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
For the purposes of the investigation serving as my example, however, it is appropriate to deactivate this familiar apperception, not only in order to focus on the affective texture of the living present in its own right, but also to make room for an alternative apperception in which I am free to sense the same sensuous events as registering not a "state" of my own body, but the tugs and pulls, the vectors and valences, of the interkinaesthetic-affective field.
We used two projective techniques: (1)thematic apperceptions test (TAT) where informants interpreted an ambiguous picture of a man behind a counter with an "Rx" sign and (2) a pharmacy "shopping basket" where informants identified and shared stories regarding a selection of OTC medications for common illnesses (e.
At the same time, this type of research is lacking in two notable regards: (1) Several personality measures, such as the Thematic Apperception Test, might be better conceptualized as observational tools than objective tests, (2) Issues of validity and reliability often are applied without a thoughtful understanding of the way these measures are constructed and yield meaningful data, and (3) Practitioners typically utilize multiple personality measures in an attempt to gauge overlapping signs and diagnostic symptoms rather than relying on single measures.
That which the concept of 'thing in itself' (noumenon) yields as without pity and as ever other than itself, if not under the synthetic apperception which confines it into a generic possibility of a limit, will be shown when the category of 'subject' is led back to that of 'object' which, with regard to the universe, suits it more properly.
Although both natural unfoldment and apperception had impacted American education, particularly by making headway into the curriculum of the teacher-education institutions of the last half of the 1800s, mental discipline was still the standard by which subjects and students were judged.
The military has used tests such as the Woodworth personal data sheet since 1919 to predict a recruit's susceptibility to shell shock and administered the Thematic Apperception Test in the 1930s to identify personalities susceptible to enemy intelligence.
Michele Eodice begins her 2003 chapter in The Center Will Hold with these words: "My purpose here is to invite an apperception, what William James says in Talks to Teachers 'means nothing more than the act of taking things into the mind' (1958 [1899])" (114).
To the mechane he wants to subordinate apperception and reasoning arising from regulated successions.
Murray (1893-1988), who taught at Harvard for many years, influenced psychology through "the study of lives" as dynamic wholes and development of the Thematic Apperception Test.
How then can one describe what is at one & the same time a step by step exploration and a charged condition of instress, of apperception, intuition, of the whole?
According to Table 1, knowledge initiated through the strategies of phase one and two, where perception dominates and where responsibility and initiative are left to the student, is further discussed in the classroom during phase three in search of apperception.
Its all but ungainly music would seem to offer a more just medium for the apperception of erotic/romantic love than Ferguson found in the "Fairy" poems.