Appetite

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Appetite

 

a pleasant sensation associated with the need for food; also, a physiological mechanism regulating the intake of food substances into the organism. After long deprivation of food, appetite becomes the sensation of hunger.

Appetite is closely related to the activity of the feeding center, primarily those parts of the feeding center located in the hypothalamus and in the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. Appetite is determined by information coming to the feeding center about nutritive conditions, the intake and assimilation of food, and the consumption of food reserves. Appetite is not caused by the exhaustion of the organism’s food reserves; rather, appetite gives warning beforehand of the exhaustion of food reserves, so that the many stimuli that make up the appetite can change their signals in accordance with a change in the dietary regimen. Stimulation of the appetite depends on the amount of products of intermediary metabolism in the blood, the level of assimilation of these products by the cells, the amount of water in the tissues, the condition of the fat reserves, the contraction of the empty stomach, the lowering of body temperature, and the many external stimuli associated with conditioned reflex activity (the appearance and odor of food, habitual surroundings, and others). Inhibition of the appetite results from eating, distension of the walls of the stomach by food, absorption and assimilation of the products of digestion, and change in the hormonal balance.

General appetite, that is, appetite for any food, is distinguished from specialized or selective forms of appetite which reflect the organism’s need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral substances, and vitamins. Appetite makes possible the regulation of the need for specific foods in quantities required by the organism. It also promotes the digestion and assimilation of food by stimulating the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. A good appetite is often a sign of physical and mental well-being. Disorders of the appetite are symptomatic of many diseases. A decrease in appetite (anorexia), a pathological increase in appetite (bulimia), or perverted appetite may be found in cases of brain tumors, many nervous and psychological disorders, diseases of the digestive tract, avitaminosis, and endocrine diseases. Normalization of appetite depends on treatment of the basic disease and observance of the proper dietary regimen.

REFERENCES

Anokhin, P. K. “Uzlovye voprosy ν izuchenii vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti.” In Problemy vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1949.
Ugolev, A. M., and V. G. Kassil’. “Fiziologiia appetita.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1961, vol. 51, issue 3.
Ugolev, A. M., and V.G. Kassil’. “Pishchevoe povedenie i reguliat-siia gomeostaza.” In Slozhnye formy povedeniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Chernigovskii, V. N. Znachenie interotseptivnoi signalizatsii ν pishchevom povedenii zhivotnykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.

V. G. KASSIL’ and A. M. UGOLEV

References in classic literature ?
Should any little accidental disappointment of the appetite occur, such as the spoiling of a meal, the under or the over dressing of a dish, the incident ought not to be neutralised by replacing with something more delicate the comfort lost, thus pampering the body and obviating the aim of this institution; it ought to be improved to the spiritual edification of the pupils, by encouraging them to evince fortitude under temporary privation.
It became possible for both Colin and Mary to do more of them each time they tried, and such appetites were the results that but for the basket Dickon put down behind the bush each morning when he arrived they would have been lost.
They then sat down again at the table, and began with fresh appetites to eat, drink, sing, and recite verses.
I had after this described the reasonable soul, and shown that it could by no means be educed from the power of matter, as the other things of which I had spoken, but that it must be expressly created; and that it is not sufficient that it be lodged in the human body exactly like a pilot in a ship, unless perhaps to move its members, but that it is necessary for it to be joined and united more closely to the body, in order to have sensations and appetites similar to ours, and thus constitute a real man.
To cast in my lot with Jekyll, was to die to those appetites which I had long secretly indulged and had of late begun to pamper.
I believe we should have shocked the `New Woman' with our appetites.
Our appetites satisfied, we felt overcome with sleep.
While Porthos and Mousqueton were breakfasting, with the appetites of convalescents and with that brotherly cordiality which unites men in misfortune, D'Artagnan related how Aramis, being wounded, was obliged to stop at Crevecoeur, how he had left Athos fighting at Amiens with four men who accused him of being a coiner, and how he, D'Artagnan, had been forced to run the Comtes de Wardes through the body in order to reach England.
After these experiments, the cold atmosphere drove us all into the house, with the keenest appetites for supper.
The next morning, their appetites were as sharp as ever.
The keen appetites of mountain trappers, quickened by a fortnight's fasting, at length got the better of all scruples of pride, and they fairly begged some fish or flesh from the hospitable savages.
They almost forgot to go to their dinner that day, their appetites being preoccupied with imaginary sugar-plums; and I think even Punch, setting up his tabernacle in the market- place, would not have succeeded in drawing them away from those shop-windows, where they stood according to gradations of size and strength, the biggest and strongest being nearest the window, and the little ones in the outermost rows lifting wide-open eyes and mouths towards the upper tier of jars, like small birds at meal- time.