Appetite

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Appetite

 

a pleasant sensation associated with the need for food; also, a physiological mechanism regulating the intake of food substances into the organism. After long deprivation of food, appetite becomes the sensation of hunger.

Appetite is closely related to the activity of the feeding center, primarily those parts of the feeding center located in the hypothalamus and in the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. Appetite is determined by information coming to the feeding center about nutritive conditions, the intake and assimilation of food, and the consumption of food reserves. Appetite is not caused by the exhaustion of the organism’s food reserves; rather, appetite gives warning beforehand of the exhaustion of food reserves, so that the many stimuli that make up the appetite can change their signals in accordance with a change in the dietary regimen. Stimulation of the appetite depends on the amount of products of intermediary metabolism in the blood, the level of assimilation of these products by the cells, the amount of water in the tissues, the condition of the fat reserves, the contraction of the empty stomach, the lowering of body temperature, and the many external stimuli associated with conditioned reflex activity (the appearance and odor of food, habitual surroundings, and others). Inhibition of the appetite results from eating, distension of the walls of the stomach by food, absorption and assimilation of the products of digestion, and change in the hormonal balance.

General appetite, that is, appetite for any food, is distinguished from specialized or selective forms of appetite which reflect the organism’s need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral substances, and vitamins. Appetite makes possible the regulation of the need for specific foods in quantities required by the organism. It also promotes the digestion and assimilation of food by stimulating the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. A good appetite is often a sign of physical and mental well-being. Disorders of the appetite are symptomatic of many diseases. A decrease in appetite (anorexia), a pathological increase in appetite (bulimia), or perverted appetite may be found in cases of brain tumors, many nervous and psychological disorders, diseases of the digestive tract, avitaminosis, and endocrine diseases. Normalization of appetite depends on treatment of the basic disease and observance of the proper dietary regimen.

REFERENCES

Anokhin, P. K. “Uzlovye voprosy ν izuchenii vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti.” In Problemy vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1949.
Ugolev, A. M., and V. G. Kassil’. “Fiziologiia appetita.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1961, vol. 51, issue 3.
Ugolev, A. M., and V.G. Kassil’. “Pishchevoe povedenie i reguliat-siia gomeostaza.” In Slozhnye formy povedeniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Chernigovskii, V. N. Znachenie interotseptivnoi signalizatsii ν pishchevom povedenii zhivotnykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.

V. G. KASSIL’ and A. M. UGOLEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Moreover, children with ADDHA gave evidence in their ERP waveforms of an overly reactive appetitive motivation system.
1, [section] 3; Everson, Perception, 157-86; Hendrik Lorenz, The Brute Within: Appetitive Desire in Plato and Aristotle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), chaps.
He applied each element of the analogy to this absolutely supernatural order, which includes: (1) many persons--"since Christ died for all"; (2) cognitive and appetitive habits--"since the infused virtues and gifts of the Holy Spirit flow from sanctifying grace"; (3) many coordinated operations--"since Christians live a new life and love one another"; (4) successions and series of particular goods--"since new life in Christ constantly produces benefits" (e.
First, just as in music the concord of the fourth has three species, the appetitive part of the soul has three species of virtue: moderation ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), self-control ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and shame ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).
The dialogic structure of truth, goodness, and beauty is even more apparent, for truth is reality viewed by the knowing faculty, goodness by the appetitive faculty, and beauty by the esthetic faculty.
Besides its appetitive characteristic, it also has a disinfecting effect in the digestive system; It increases body temperature, alleviates cramp, eases digestion, beautifies the skin, eliminates drunkenness, helps relieve headache, may be used for gout disease, helps for cough and sore throat, calms the temper, and is efficient in rheumatic pains.
Thus, participants with higher food addiction scores may respond to increased appetitive motivation for food by attempting to implement self-control strategies.
Collectively, these findings suggest that alcohol-dependent individuals in treatment, unlike their untreated counterparts, evince attentional disengagement from or avoidance of alcohol cues presented for longer stimulus durations (which allow for conscious mediation of attention), but continue to exhibit implicit appetitive attentional responses for short duration stimuli.
In urban areas, many residents usually keep indoors as early as 1900 hrs, therefore, exposing them to indoor appetitive mosquitoes before going to bed unlike the rural dwellers who usually spend the larger part of the night outdoors.
Burke's appetitive anxieties eventually find embodiment in the grubbing, anarchic, indiscriminate "swinish multitude" of the 1790s.
Sexual behavior of female rats is characterized by both appetitive and consummatory components, named proceptivity and receptivity (Beach, 1976).
In this edition, there is some reorganization, and there are separate chapters on the principles and theories and applications of Pavlovian, appetitive, and aversive conditioning.