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the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. Formerly a business for small farms, it is now also pursued by large agribusinesses, and by the mid-2010s it had become as significant a source of fish as the as wild fisheriesfisheries.
From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long taken cod,
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Successful aquaculture takes into consideration the biology of the aquatic species (feeding, water flow and temperature needs, disease prevention) and engineering design (water source and water quality study, pond and tank containment systems, water filtration and aeration) as well as issues pertinent to any business. Common products of aquaculture are catfish, tilapia (St. Peter's fish), trout, crawfish, oysters, shrimp, and salmon, and tropical fish for aquariums. Caviar from farm-raised sturgeon is one of the more expensive and exotic aquacultural products. Some are raised in huge freshwater tanks or ponds; others require the running water of rivers or streams. Saltwater species are often raised in saltwater ponds, in enclosed bays, or in pens placed in coastal or deeper sea waters.

There are potential environmental problems associated with aquaculture. Most of the fish that are raised are genetically altered or hybridized for quick growth. If they escape into the wild, they compete against and can crowd out smaller or less voracious native fish. Confined fish can become a breeding ground for diseases or pests, which can be transmitted in some cases to wild fish; confinement also makes the fish more suspectible to attacks by some naturally occurring pests, such as some species of jellyfish, that would be less likely to trouble dispersed wild fish. In addition, the large amounts of water that are used in aquaculture become laden with fish feces and unconsumed food that, if not removed through treatment or used as agricultural fertilizer, can add injurious amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to a river or stream when the water is returned to it. Development of improved recirculating-tank technologies, however, may lead to a reduction in such pollution threats, as well as the spread of aquaculture to areas where large volumes of water are not available in the environment (see also aquaponicsaquaponics,
the growing of plants and the raising of fish by combining aquaculture with the techniques of hydroponics, usually on a small scale. Water containing fish waste matter is used as the nutrient solution for the plants being raised; the plants help clean the water that
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The practice of aquaculture dates back to 1000 B.C. in China. It is growing worldwide, in part in response to overfishing and the deterioration of the world's fisheries and concerns about the effects of pollution on seafood. In the United States, aquaculture is also a response to the increased demand for fish and shellfish as a result of changes in the nation's eating habits.


See M. Landau, Introduction to Aquaculture (1992).


References in periodicals archive ?
Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals was the second largest occupation in the sector, with employment of 147,510 accounting for 15 percent of agricultural employment.
There is no comparison, for instance, in the levels of product development, commercialization and exports of salmon, mussels and related aquacultural products, on one hand, and those for scallops, abalones, and seaweed on the other (BCG, 2007; IFOP, 2006).
It may be said that this artificial distribution implies risks of an ecological and pathological nature; moreover the evident aquacultural advantages, there is at least one aquacultural risk in the reduction of survival that will be commented further on.
The Harbor District charges 16 cents a square foot for vacant land and open storage space and 50 cents a square foot for developed space on land outside the aquacultural park, he added.
From the wreckage of Thai mangrove forests cleared to make room for shrimp ponds to the infection and decimation of wild fish populations in Ireland by diseases cultivated in farmed stocks, aquacultural science has many adjustments to make before it can be called a "revolution.
A favorite from the south, production of crawfish is one of the largest aquacultural industries in the U.
The authors have reviewed and analyzed much data from agricultural, aquacultural, medical, industrial, trade, and recreational sources in providing a comparison of the contributions of both wild and domesticated species to the total resource supply of a highly developed economy.
These calculations, for example, can affect the output of aquacultural production or assist in environmental consulting.
can be used as an alternative natural food for diverse aquacultural species, since these organisms can be massively produced in laboratory and have demonstrated to be widely consumed by aquatic species (Schipp et al.
18), criticizing the policy change, as under the encouragement of the county government, many farmers and aquacultural farmers have leased their farmland or fishing ponds, destroyed by a strong typhoon last year, for the installation of solar-cell facilities.
Another promising new animal protein production model also has evolved in China, this one in the aquacultural sector.
9% from 2001, according to the Fisheries Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), which boasts that China accounted for 31% of the entire world's aquacultural output.