aquaculture


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Related to aquaculture: Aquaponics

aquaculture,

the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. Formerly a business for small farms, it is now also pursued by large agribusinesses, and by the mid-2010s it had become as significant a source of fish as the as wild fisheriesfisheries.
From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long taken cod,
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.

Successful aquaculture takes into consideration the biology of the aquatic species (feeding, water flow and temperature needs, disease prevention) and engineering design (water source and water quality study, pond and tank containment systems, water filtration and aeration) as well as issues pertinent to any business. Common products of aquaculture are catfish, tilapia (St. Peter's fish), trout, crawfish, oysters, shrimp, and salmon, and tropical fish for aquariums. Caviar from farm-raised sturgeon is one of the more expensive and exotic aquacultural products. Some are raised in huge freshwater tanks or ponds; others require the running water of rivers or streams. Saltwater species are often raised in saltwater ponds, in enclosed bays, or in pens placed in coastal or deeper sea waters.

There are potential environmental problems associated with aquaculture. Most of the fish that are raised are genetically altered or hybridized for quick growth. If they escape into the wild, they compete against and can crowd out smaller or less voracious native fish. Confined fish can become a breeding ground for diseases or pests, which can be transmitted in some cases to wild fish; confinement also makes the fish more suspectible to attacks by some naturally occurring pests, such as some species of jellyfish, that would be less likely to trouble dispersed wild fish. In addition, the large amounts of water that are used in aquaculture become laden with fish feces and unconsumed food that, if not removed through treatment or used as agricultural fertilizer, can add injurious amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to a river or stream when the water is returned to it. Development of improved recirculating-tank technologies, however, may lead to a reduction in such pollution threats, as well as the spread of aquaculture to areas where large volumes of water are not available in the environment (see also aquaponicsaquaponics,
the growing of plants and the raising of fish by combining aquaculture with the techniques of hydroponics, usually on a small scale. Water containing fish waste matter is used as the nutrient solution for the plants being raised; the plants help clean the water that
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).

The practice of aquaculture dates back to 1000 B.C. in China. It is growing worldwide, in part in response to overfishing and the deterioration of the world's fisheries and concerns about the effects of pollution on seafood. In the United States, aquaculture is also a response to the increased demand for fish and shellfish as a result of changes in the nation's eating habits.

Bibliography

See M. Landau, Introduction to Aquaculture (1992).

aquaculture

[′ak·wə‚kəl·chər]
(biology)
References in periodicals archive ?
NOAA notes that, although world-capture fisheries production has stagnated since the mid-1980s, aquaculture has maintained an annual growth rate of 8.
But the industry is growing, and I'm very excited to aquaculture get stretched into new ways.
The programme will likewise contribute to enhancing the vying of the fisheries and aquaculture divisions by fostering marketing and processing.
Freshwater culture is the main part of aquaculture in China, with its output holding more than 60%.
Although it's been around for centuries, aquaculture is, in many respects, the new frontier for farming.
6 kilo tons of global aquaculture demand in 2013 and is expected to reach 29,462.
The output, as reported, from aquaculture would supply one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans.
Fisheries and aquaculture play a critical role in the economic development of the continent and the sector has enormous wealth-creation potential, only if requisite policies and programmes are put in place.
He expects aquaculture to have a long term growth that will make it the dominant seafood supplier within a decade or two — without damaging the eco systems in which it operates.
2 percent of aquaculture production was from saltwater fish, the board said.
The UK is the fourth-largest aquaculture producer in the EU.
The four-day works were sanctioned by a Memorandum of Understanding of cooperation in the field of fisheries and aquaculture signed by Algerian Fishing and Halieutic Resources Minister Smail Mimoune and Egyptian Minister of Agriculture and Lands Promotion Amine Abadha.