aquaculture


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Related to aquaculture: Aquaponics

aquaculture,

the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. Formerly a business for small farms, it is now also pursued by large agribusinesses, and by the mid-2010s it had become as significant a source of fish as the as wild fisheriesfisheries.
From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long taken cod,
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.

Successful aquaculture takes into consideration the biology of the aquatic species (feeding, water flow and temperature needs, disease prevention) and engineering design (water source and water quality study, pond and tank containment systems, water filtration and aeration) as well as issues pertinent to any business. Common products of aquaculture are catfish, tilapia (St. Peter's fish), trout, crawfish, oysters, shrimp, and salmon, and tropical fish for aquariums. Caviar from farm-raised sturgeon is one of the more expensive and exotic aquacultural products. Some are raised in huge freshwater tanks or ponds; others require the running water of rivers or streams. Saltwater species are often raised in saltwater ponds, in enclosed bays, or in pens placed in coastal or deeper sea waters.

There are potential environmental problems associated with aquaculture. Most of the fish that are raised are genetically altered or hybridized for quick growth. If they escape into the wild, they compete against and can crowd out smaller or less voracious native fish. Confined fish can become a breeding ground for diseases or pests, which can be transmitted in some cases to wild fish; confinement also makes the fish more suspectible to attacks by some naturally occurring pests, such as some species of jellyfish, that would be less likely to trouble dispersed wild fish. In addition, the large amounts of water that are used in aquaculture become laden with fish feces and unconsumed food that, if not removed through treatment or used as agricultural fertilizer, can add injurious amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to a river or stream when the water is returned to it. Development of improved recirculating-tank technologies, however, may lead to a reduction in such pollution threats, as well as the spread of aquaculture to areas where large volumes of water are not available in the environment (see also aquaponicsaquaponics,
the growing of plants and the raising of fish by combining aquaculture with the techniques of hydroponics, usually on a small scale. Water containing fish waste matter is used as the nutrient solution for the plants being raised; the plants help clean the water that
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).

The practice of aquaculture dates back to 1000 B.C. in China. It is growing worldwide, in part in response to overfishing and the deterioration of the world's fisheries and concerns about the effects of pollution on seafood. In the United States, aquaculture is also a response to the increased demand for fish and shellfish as a result of changes in the nation's eating habits.

Bibliography

See M. Landau, Introduction to Aquaculture (1992).

aquaculture

[′ak·wə‚kəl·chər]
(biology)
References in periodicals archive ?
who is recognized as a prime mover of Penaeus vannamei farming in the Philippines Emilia Quinitio who was responsible for the eventual commercialization of crab hatchery and nursery technology Wilfredo Yap who conceptualized the Mariculture Park System for sustainable aquaculture in the sea and Catalino dela Cruz, a pioneering expert on aquaculture engineering and integrated agri-aqua farming.
Overall, Mote's study of almaco jack will last two years and focus on: understanding the reproductive cycle in an aquaculture system; developing methods to improve survival and growth for research- and commercial-scale trials of rearing larvae (babies) and fingerlings (juveniles); examining seafood market opportunities; and disseminating results to the scientific community and aquaculture industry.
Funding for this project is provided by NOAA Sea Grant Aquaculture Research Program and administered by the Florida Sea College Program.
Aquaculture Plan, which regulates offshore aquaculture exclusively in
no regulatory framework for offshore finfish aquaculture currently
Consequently, promoting and increasing aquaculture productivity will not only contribute towards increased food security, but could possibly allow the country to produce a surplus for export [14].
However, potential for development and expansion of aquaculture exists in western Kenya, southern and central Rift valley, central and eastern Kenya and the coastal region.
Integrated aquaculture has gained attention as an innovated system to add value to water, recycle nutrients and wastes in the system to produce more crops.
Fifteen aquaponic sets were installed in an aquaculture setting at Kuala Sungai Baru, Perlis, Malaysia.
He pointed out that the commercial aquaculture projects entering the large scale project stage, based on modern technology applications and the increase of fish production, so as to contribute to the expansion of fish production base where natural fish areas complement the aquaculture projects in providing the local markets with fish products and to import the excess quantities to outside markets and increase the national income.
Global aquaculture production continues to improve at about 10% annually, outpacing terrestrial livestock production and capture fisheries (FAO, 2010).
It is actually first time that FAO has approved a project for promotion of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Punjab province.