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grooving is the most effective method of preventing aquaplaning. When there is a thin film of oil, dirt, or rubber particles mixed with water that prevents tires from making positive contact with the pavement and makes braking ineffective, the phenomenon is called vicious hydroplaning. A thumb rule for determining minimum aquaplaning speed in knots is 8.6 × the square root of tire pressure in psi (lb/in2). The minimum full aquaplaning speed (where the entire tire is lifted off the runway) is 9 × the square root of tire pressure in psi. Where a stationary wheel lands on a flooded runway, the minimum full aquaplaning speed is 7.7 × the square root of the tire pressure in psi. Also called hydroplaning and dynamic hydroplaning.