Single cell re-differentiation is a fascinating process during arbuscule
development, Which can be conceptually separated into distinct stages controlled by the plant cell which precisely guide the step-wise formation of different parts of the arbuscule
intensity of mycelium, vesicle and arbuscule
of AM fungi was estimated as poor (P) when less than 10% of the root area was infected, moderate (M) when less than25% of the root area was infected and abundant (A) when greater than 25% of the root area was infected.
represents a dead end in the growth of AM fungi (Bonfante 1995) as they senesce and collapse after 4-10 days of symbiosis (Sanders 1977) and thus the plant cell recovers its original morphology (Jacquelinet-Jeanmougin 1987).
The microscope was focused through the entire root segment and if an arbuscule
or vesicle was detected, the root segment at the intersection was scored as infected.
Toth R, Miller M (1984) Dynamics of arbuscule
development and degeneration in Zea mays mycorrhiza.
and phosphorus transfer a quantitative ultraestructural study.
Phenotypic correlations and QTL analyses were calculated using colonization data based on detection of any mycorrhizal structure (vesicle, arbuscule
, or hypha) at an intersect.
Abscisic acid determines arbuscule
development and functionality in the tomato arbuscular mycorrhiza.
However, the dramatic increase in vesicle numbers between fertilized and unfertilized soils suggests that mycorrhizae in fertilized soils could yield lower net benefits or perhaps a net cost to their hosts because they exchange similar soil resources (no change in arbuscule
number) while increasing their own storage structures (vesicles) (Fig.
The absorbed P is then converted to polyphosphate granules in external hyphae and passed to the arbuscule
for transfer to the host plant (AzconAguilar and Barea, 1996).
If an arbuscule
or vesicle was found at an intersect, that intersect was considered infected.
MPCM and SBFSEM phenotyping of rice mutants compromised in arbuscule
development will provide a novel insight into the complex molecular mechanisms that underpin cellular morphogenesis during plant endosymbiosis.