arc heating

arc heating

[′ärk ‚hēd·iŋ]
The heating of a material by the heat energy from an electric arc, which has a very high temperature and very high concentration of heat energy. Also known as electric-arc heating.

Arc heating

The heating of matter by an electric arc. The matter may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. When the heating is direct, the material to be heated is one electrode; for indirect heating, the heat is transferred from the arc by conduction, convection, or radiation.

At atmospheric pressure, the arc behaves much like a resistor operating at temperatures of the order of thousands of kelvins. The energy source is extremely concentrated and can reach many millions of watts per cubic meter. Almost all materials can be melted quickly under these conditions, and chemical reactions can be carried out under oxidizing, neutral, or reducing conditions.

In a direct-arc furnace, the arc strikes directly between the graphite electrodes and the charge being melted. These furnaces are used in steelmaking, foundries, ferroalloy production, and some nonferrous metallurgical applications. Although an extremely large number of furnace types are available, they are all essentially the same. They consist of a containment vessel with a refractory lining, a removable roof for charging, electrodes to supply the energy for melting and reaction, openings and a mechanism for pouring the product, a power supply, and controls. The required accessory components include water-cooling circuits, gas cleaning and extraction equipment, cranes for charging the furnace, and ladles to remove the product. Because the electrodes are consumed by volatilization and reaction, a mechanism must be provided to feed them continuously through the electrode holders.

In submerged-arc furnaces, the arcs are below the solid feed and sometimes below the molten product. Submerged-arc furnaces differ from those used in steelmaking in that raw materials are fed continuously around the electrodes and the product and slag are tapped off intermittently. The furnace vessel is usually stationary. Submerged-arc furnaces are often used for carbothermic reductions (for example, to make ferroalloys), and the gases formed by the reduction reaction percolate up through the charge, preheating and sometimes prereducing it. Because of this, the energy efficiency of this type of furnace is high. The passage of the exhaust gas through the burden also filters it and thus reduces air-pollution control costs.

Although carbon arcs are plasmas, common usage of the term plasma torch suggests the injection of gas into or around the arc. This gas may be inert, neutral, oxidizing, or reducing, depending on the application and the electrodes used. Plasma torches are available at powers ranging from a few kilowatts to over 10 MW; usually they use direct-current electricity and water-cooled metallic electrodes.

Direct-current carbon arc furnaces operate on the basis that a direct-cur­rent arc is more stable than its alternating-current counterpart, and can, therefore, be run at lower current and higher voltage by increasing the arc length. This reduces both the electrode diameter and the electrode consumption compared to alternating-current operation at similar powers. Tests have also shown that injecting gas through a hole drilled through the center of the electrode further increases stability and reduces wear. Powdered ore and reductants may be injected with this gas, reducing the need for agglomerating the arc furnace feed.

In most cases, direct-current carbon arc furnaces have one carbon electrode, with the product forming the second electrode. The current is usually removed from the furnace through a bottom constructed of electrically conducting material. Several direct-current plasma furnaces with powers ranging from 1 to 45 MW are in operation.

References in periodicals archive ?
As regards the formation of a refining slag in the ladle during induction heating, this can be carried out using the same electric arc electroslag heating procedures, but the power in this case is considerably lower in comparison with purely electric arc heating of the entire volume of the ladle, and gas heating, including with the so-called flame-slag torches, is also used [1].
The heat losses in the process of this and subsequent treatments (vacuum treatment, transport, casting) are compensated by arc heating in which the heat is transferred by the upper metal layer.
A special feature of arc heating is local subelectrode superheating of the melt, resulting in the burn-out of alloying elements and also the high level of thermal load on the arc and on the upper belt of the ladle, causing premature wear of the lining.
The plasma-torch/CVD effort combines the know-how of SGS, the leading supplier of precision rotary carbide tools, with the expertise of scientists at the Westinghouse Science & Technology Center (STC) in Pittsburgh in both diamond film fabrication and high-power direct-current electric arc heating technology.
In arc heating sources with a plasma cathode [33, 34] uniform dispersion of active spots on the working surface of a non-consumable electrode and reduction of the released on it energy are achieved due to auxiliary low-ampere arc, which ensures required number of the charged particles in the near-electrode area for operation of the main arc.