archetype

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archetype

(är`kĭtīp') [Gr. arch=first, typos=mold], term whose earlier meaning, "original model," or "prototype," has been enlarged by C. G. JungJung, Carl Gustav
, 1875–1961, Swiss psychiatrist, founder of analytical psychology. The son of a country pastor, he studied at Basel (1895–1900) and Zürich (M.D., 1902).
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 and by several contemporary literary critics. A Jungian archetype is a thought pattern that finds worldwide parallels, either in cultures (for example, the similarity of the ritual of Holy Communion in Europe with the tecqualo in ancient Mexico) or in individuals (a child's concept of a parent as both heroic and tyrannic, superman and ogre). Jung believed that such archetypal images and ideas reside in the unconscious level of the mind of every human being and are inherited from the ancestors of the race. They form the substance of the collective unconscious. Literary critics such as Northrop FryeFrye, Northrop
, 1912–91, Canadian literary critic, b. Quebec. In 1936 he was ordained as a minister in the United Church of Canada. In 1948 he was appointed professor of English at Victoria College, of which he was later principal (1959–66).
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 and Maud Bodkin use the term archetype interchangeably with the term motifmotif
, in literature, term that denotes the recurrent presence of certain character types, objects, settings, or situations in diverse genres and periods of folklore and literature.
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, emphasizing that the role of these elements in great works of literature is to unite readers with otherwise dispersed cultures and eras.

Archetype

 

concept of the original type, the prototype of the skeletal structure of all vertebrates, advanced by R. Owen (1847). The archetype theory is based on the comparison of traits common to the skeletons of various vertebrates, and it has created an abstract model, an ideal type of skeleton, which has not been completely realized by any animal, either extinct or living. This theory served as an expression of the natural philosophical school of morphology during the 18th and 19th centuries, when a reflection of general ideas was sought for in the structure of human beings and animals. Basic to the archetype is the ideal vertebrate system, consisting of eight parts (the body, the neural and hemal arches, the awned and transverse appendages, and the ribs). The entire skeleton is depicted as some kind of series of such modified vertebrae. In the skull Owen distinguished four vertebrae: the occipital, parietal, frontal, and nasal. C. Darwin reinterpreted the archetype theory; he conceived of it not as an abstract prototype but as an ancestral form which had actually existed at one time.

REFERENCES

Owen, R. Report on the Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton: Report of the 16th Meeting . . . of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. . ., 1846. London, 1847.

B. S. MATVEEV

archetype

[′är·ki‚tīp]
(evolution)
A hypothetical ancestral type conceptualized by eliminating all specialized character traits.

archetype

1. Psychoanal one of the inherited mental images postulated by Jung as the content of the collective unconscious
2. a constantly recurring symbol or motif in literature, painting, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
In archetypically highly decentralized countries (U.
42) Archetypically, the symbolic transformation of the Japan Defence Agency into a Ministry of Defence "naturally creates doubts about 'Japan engaging once again on the old road of military expansion"".
For example, on one song she may seem archetypically cast from the folkie mold, singing a protest song with the refrain "drill baby, drill," while later, playing with the five-piece Kristen Ford Band, she's setting a caustic breakup song, "Loved You Madly," to a reggae beat.
James Young has argued that "to think about, to remember, and to express the events of the Holocaust is either to do so archetypically or not at all" (89).
Wagner, 1995) and is archetypically perceived to be a separate and distinguishable entity, whereas in collectivist models, self and goals are construed to be an inseparable part of a family, a tribal group, or some other definably collective set (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Petrova, Cialdini, & Sills, 2007).
THE post-1945 cult of mediocrity has involved the undervaluing or ignoring of many aspects of Britain's achievements in the nineteenth century and one archetypically Victorian phenomenon that historians, the trustees of the collective memory, have agreed to overlook is the degree to which the prestige of Britain's parliamentary system used to depend on the way it regularly placed at the head of affairs individuals recognized as, quite simply, the very finest intellects of their time.
If Mockingbird never holds out Atticus as a paragon of virtue, proving that he either is or is not an archetypically moral and professional attorney is, at best, an oblique observation that does little to prop up or tear down the character's overall value to legal professionals.
Thus, Laurette's archetypically courtly life becomes an essential part of the reading and even the 'story' of the Psalms, and with it comes an intense engagement between the Psalms and the courtly literary aesthetic.
Laura's brand of fashion may at one stage have become synonymous with the archetypically English Sloane Ranger - there is the famous "see-through" picture of Lady Diana wearing one of her skirts - but throughout her life, her Welsh roots were important and she was able to stand back from London life.
For any educated person and just possibly archetypically for anyone at all, the Middle Ages are integral to our understanding of people and the world and are therefore essentially above reproach.
The supreme trope of the Gothic novel, the haunted house or mansion, the mysterious and labyrinthine castle or abbey, is here revealed archetypically used by Edgeworth to anatomize her people, her place, her identity, all in conflict and rent.