archons


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archons

(är`kŏnz, –kənz) [Gr.,=leaders], in ancient Athens and other Greek cities, officers of state. Originally in Athens there were three archons: the archon eponymos (so called because the year was named after him), who was the chief officer of the state; the archon basileus, who was primarily connected with sacred rites; and the archon polemarchos (the polemarch, or military commander), who—theoretically, at least—had military leadership. Six more archons, the thesmothetae (thesmothetes), were later added; they were junior officers, generally in charge of the courts. The archons were elected, and after they had served and their records had been approved, they entered the AreopagusAreopagus
[Gr.,=hill of Ares], rocky hill, 370 ft (113 m) high, NW of the Acropolis of Athens, famous as the sacred meeting place of the prime council of Athens. This council, also called the Areopagus, represented the ancient council of elders, which usually combined judicial
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. Solon, Hippias, and Themistocles were archons. After 487 B.C. the archons were chosen by lot; the office, which had previously been limited to the two upper classes, was opened to the third class. Thereafter the archontate declined greatly in importance. The lists of eponymous archons kept after the 7th cent. B.C. are a valuable source of history.
References in periodicals archive ?
I have summarized below five problematic areas indicated by the Archons as being fundamental problems of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Turkey.
Armanios reads these texts as evidence of the delicate balancing acts by which Egyptian Copts--led by the archons who were so closely tied to the governing elite successfully worked in the Ottoman era to preserve their community amidst Egypt's overwhelmingly Muslim majority.
For one, the festival itself was made possible only via security accords between Coptic archons who patronized the event and the bedouin groups who inhabited the region east of the festival site, as well as the area's Ottoman provincial military commanders--arrangements that further support the author's portrayal of Coptic-Muslim relations in Ottoman Egypt as negotiated rather than strictly confrontational.
Some of the members are second- and third-generation archons, but an increasing number, like the new leader, Charles Teamer, come from the ranks of high achievers with no previous family connections.
A striking innovation was the payment of salaries to the archons and members of the Assembly.