art history

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art history,

the study of works of art and architecture. In the mid-19th cent., art history was raised to the status of an academic discipline by the Swiss Jacob BurckhardtBurckhardt, Jacob or Jakob Christoph
, 1818–97, Swiss historian, one of the founders of the cultural interpretation of history. He studied under Ranke at the Univ.
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, who related art to its cultural environment, and the German idealists Alois Riegl, Heinrich WölfflinWölfflin, Heinrich
, 1864–1945, Swiss art historian. Wölfflin's formal stylistic analysis of motifs and composition in art combined cultural history and psychological insight into the creative process to form a complete aesthetic system.
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, and Wilhelm Worringer. The latter three saw art history as the analysis of forms and viewed art apart from any function it serves in expressing the spirit of its age. Major 20th-century art historians include Henri Focillon, Bernard BerensonBerenson, Bernard
, 1865–1959, American art critic and connoisseur of Italian art, b. Lithuania, grad. Harvard, 1887. An expert and an arbiter of taste, he selected for art collectors innumerable paintings, many of which are now in museums.
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, Aby Warburg, Émile MâleMâle, Émile
, 1862–1954, French art historian. Mâle pioneered the study of French art of the Middle Ages, its forms, and especially the Eastern sources of sculptural iconography of the cathedrals of France.
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, Erwin PanofskyPanofsky, Erwin
, 1892–1968, American art historian, b. Germany, Ph.D. Univ. of Freiburg, 1914. After teaching (1921–33) at the Univ. of Hamburg and serving as professor of fine arts at New York Univ.
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, and Ernst Gombrich; the succeeding generation has included Michael Fried, Rosalind Krauss, Donald Kuspit, and Giselda Pollack. Modern art history is a broad field of inquiry embracing formal questions of stylistic development as well as considerations of social and cultural context. Since the 1970s, a heightened awareness of gender, ethnicity, and environmental issues has marked the work of many art historians.


See A. Hauser, The Social History of Art (4 vol., 1958–60); M. Podro, The Critical Historians of Art (1982); E. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art (16th ed. 1995); P. J. E. Davies et al. Janson's History of Art (8th ed. 2010); H. Honour and J. Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History (rev. 7th ed. 2013).

References in periodicals archive ?
Cohen passes relatively lightly over the many art historians who were deeply influenced by spending time in Berenson's company at I Tatti (and she misspells John Pope-Hennessy's name), sitting at his feet, being inspired by his encyclopaedic knowledge, corresponding with him, and making use of his art-historical library.
As a measure of the cultural sophistication of a city, the collection of art books in early public lending libraries and of the stock traded in book stores tells book historians and bibliographers as well as social and art historians much about the economic, educational, and class contexts in which artists aspired, studied, and sought private and public patronage.
And when should the interpretation of an art historian trump the insights of the actual artist?
These African American art experts contributed to the compilation of these lists of essential art books: Lynn Moody Igoe, editor and researcher; David Driskell, art historian professor emeritus University of Maryland and artist; Louise Stone, a freelance editor with a specialty in art books; Michael Harris, artist, professor and curator of African and African American art; Halima Taha, author; and Harriet Kelley, collector.
Previous analyses of microscopic paint samples taken from a handful of works had revealed many aspects of the artists' techniques, such as their process of layering colors, but art historians had found few recipes detailing how Venetian artists made their colors.
Exploring how art historians gather and present information provides the perfect opportunity to thread the visual arts throughout the curriculum.
The author may describe his art historian hero as "Harrison Ford in Harris tweed," but like young Master Potter, Robert Langdon launches readers into the arcane world of religious symbols, mathematical puzzles, and linguistic codes that are as challenging as a fast game of quiddich.
Speaking on behalf of Team 1998-99 was Maren Nelson, an art historian turned designer and (according to one colleague) "the best welder in the class," and for Team 1999-2000, Sidsel Just, a Danish architect turned book author and porch builder.
Which of today's creations, wonders Yale art historian Vincent Scully, will still exist a thousand years from now?
Marrow, an art historian, joined the Getty in 1983 to launch a publications program that underwrote and published scholarly works on art history.
London, Feb 10 ( ANI ): An art historian has revealed that Michelangelo was a skilled forger, who made copies of major works before ageing them with smoke and swapping them for the originals.
Editor Buller is an independent art historian, writer, curator, printmaker, and mother of three.