artifact


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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue

Artifact

Individual product of human manufacture, such as cutlery, glassware, pottery, textiles, tools, and weapons.

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.

artifact

[′ärd·ə‚fakt]
(archeology)
Any crafted object of common use that reflects the skills of humans in past cultures.
(communications)
Any component of a signal that is extraneous to the variable represented by the signal.
(histology)
A structure in a fixed cell or tissue formed by manipulation or by the reagent.
(medicine)
Noise or spurious signals that occur during various radiological imaging techniques; can reach a level where they appear in the image with as much strength as the signals produced by real objects.

building artifact

An element in a building which demonstrates human workmanship, such as a stained-glass window.

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Architecture of the proposed ringing artifact reduction technique is presented in Section 2.
If you would like more information regarding the Artifact app or would like to schedule an interview please contact:
Mohammad Ali Najafi, the new head of the Cultural Heritage Organization, unveiled the artifact September 28 at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport after returning with Rohani from New York.
It is obvious from the ECG in Figure 1 that artifacts can be misinterpreted as ventricular tachycardia.
This information describes (formally) the coordinating behaviour of the artifact, in terms of coordination rules required for enacting the coordination service.
Founded in 2001, Artifact provides software products and an on-line service to help developers and development organizations better manage programming resources.
The Oriental Institute is using the Internet to circulate images and descriptions of the artifacts in an effort to hinder the international movement of these items.
Police reportedly thwarted an attempt by Li to flee China with a fake passport along with the money he made from the illegal sale of the items, including 70 artifacts police said they found in his home.
Every digital imaging project concerned with the capture of artifacts must involve the preservation of the digital image and the original artifact and, at the very least, digitization should do no harm to the original source document.
The tunable LED source will be useful in transferring photometric and colorimetric scales from reference instruments to test artifacts with a minimum increase in uncertainty for specific spectral distributions.
Although this requires saving application and system software as well as the artifact itself, these are all just bitstreams.
1983 On the Edge of the Simpson: Recent Additions to Understanding of Prehistoric Artifact Distributions in Arid Australia, Australian Archaeology 17, 27-37.