artifact

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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue

Artifact

Individual product of human manufacture, such as cutlery, glassware, pottery, textiles, tools, and weapons.

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.

artifact

[′ärd·ə‚fakt]
(archeology)
Any crafted object of common use that reflects the skills of humans in past cultures.
(communications)
Any component of a signal that is extraneous to the variable represented by the signal.
(histology)
A structure in a fixed cell or tissue formed by manipulation or by the reagent.
(medicine)
Noise or spurious signals that occur during various radiological imaging techniques; can reach a level where they appear in the image with as much strength as the signals produced by real objects.

building artifact

An element in a building which demonstrates human workmanship, such as a stained-glass window.

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
References in periodicals archive ?
First, because of section thickness, in some cells, 1 or both copies of any gene will not be in the plane of section; therefore, control values have to be generated for the range of artifactual versus real p16 gene loss (we use >20% of nuclei lacking both copies of p16 as a cutoff value).
I note only that the necessity of a certain kind of origin does not make all such particulars artifacts, particulars of artifactual kinds having an essential explanation in terms of the intentions or aims of rational agents.
Artifactual changes in PCV, hemoglobin concentration and cell counts of bovine, caprine and porcine blood stored at room and refrigerator temperatures.
It is likely that the distal vertebral artery occlusion resulted in slow flow through the basilar artery and/or retrograde flow through posterior communicating arteries, causing artifactual signal loss on MRA.
What should we expect in the artifactual record of monastic domestic occupation?
The last section of Zunshine s book turns to the case of "really strange concepts" (144, emphasis in original), which take the mixing of natural and artifactual kinds to a maximum.
The notion of materiality is thus of pivotal interest when scrutinizing homosocial communities as mediated by artifactual utility.
0 kHz, the DP-grams display an artifactual notch due to the resonance of the rat's outer auditory meatus that prevents the primary frequencies from reaching the eardrum with adequate intensities and increases the noise floor obtained within this range.
These are not the artifactual bands which can form during the late PCR cycles in a single template containing samples due to secondary structure formations (Janse et al.
Important research has been done within the "Methodology of Emergent Synthesis" programme in Kobe, where the central question is realising an artifactual system that achieves its purpose in unpredictable conditions (Ueda et al.
Given the lack of artifactual information, we redesigned our approach to surveying the wheat field, one that would impact our research for the coming years.
We also wanted to have the inspiration come from the material itself, archives as material culture, as tangible, artifactual, tactile items which evoke different responses dependent on the approach of the user.