artifact

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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue

Artifact

Individual product of human manufacture, such as cutlery, glassware, pottery, textiles, tools, and weapons.

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.

artifact

[′ärd·ə‚fakt]
(archeology)
Any crafted object of common use that reflects the skills of humans in past cultures.
(communications)
Any component of a signal that is extraneous to the variable represented by the signal.
(histology)
A structure in a fixed cell or tissue formed by manipulation or by the reagent.
(medicine)
Noise or spurious signals that occur during various radiological imaging techniques; can reach a level where they appear in the image with as much strength as the signals produced by real objects.

building artifact

An element in a building which demonstrates human workmanship, such as a stained-glass window.

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
References in periodicals archive ?
The comparison of artifactual rules on four databases is shown in Figure 7(b).
Artifactual undetectable HDL-cholesterol with the Beckman Synchron LX and Vitros 950 assays temporally associated with a paraprotein.
LA SINTESIS NECESARIA: HACIA UN ENFOQUE ARTIFACTUAL DE LA ALFABETIZACION Y SUS IMPLICACIONES EDUCATIVAS
As we will see in short, Thomasson might have been clearer than she actually has been about what it means to have a "substantive" or "substantively correct" concept (4) of (and hence epistemic privilege about) an artifact or artifactual kind.
Our findings are consistent with studies conducted on human blood samples (7) as well as cattle, (12, 14) goats, pigs (14) and rats, (13) but in contrast with the study conducted by Clarke (15) on equine blood samples, which showed artifactual changes in stored blood samples.
It is likely that the distal vertebral artery occlusion resulted in slow flow through the basilar artery and/or retrograde flow through posterior communicating arteries, causing artifactual signal loss on MRA.
Following this is a chapter entitled "The Distant Past;' which describes the early occupations of the Upper Sacramento Valley (labeled in periods based on artifactual remains), subsistence adaptations to climatic changes, and the arrival of the Wintu based on a historical linguistic analysis conducted in conjunction with Wintu speakers.
In her second section Zunshine turns to stories in which the artifactual and the natural are conflated, in particular the perennial story of the artificially-made creature who rebels against its creator, with Frankenstein being the prototypical case.
At the same time, these settings are mediated by artifactual utility.
In the examination of Palaeoeskimo patterning and social space, spatial and artifactual analyses of axial features at Nukasusutok-12 lead into discussion of this feature type's function in and representation of the Dorset world.
These are not the artifactual bands which can form during the late PCR cycles in a single template containing samples due to secondary structure formations (Janse et al.
Important research has been done within the "Methodology of Emergent Synthesis" programme in Kobe, where the central question is realising an artifactual system that achieves its purpose in unpredictable conditions (Ueda et al.