artificial insemination


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artificial insemination,

technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered species. Prepared semen can be preserved for long periods by refrigeration, and it is frequently shipped over great distances.

The method has also been used in humans, when traditional fertilization cannot be achieved (see infertilityinfertility,
inability to conceive or carry a child to delivery. The term is usually limited to situations where the couple has had intercourse regularly for one year without using birth control.
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). It has become a significant issue in recent years, particularly in debates revolving around surrogate motherhood, in which a woman agrees to bear a child for another couple through the use of artificially inseminated sperm from the husband (see surrogate mothersurrogate mother,
a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus.
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). Legal issues have arisen in cases where the surrogate mother decides, upon the birth of the baby, that she wants to keep the child for herself. Likewise, there have been debates over the rights of sperm donors. Other debates on the subject have centered around the ethics of artificial insemination among humans, with critics decrying the practice as a perversion of science or pointing to the possible abuse of the process for purposes of eugenicseugenics
, study of human genetics and of methods to improve the inherited characteristics, physical and mental, of the human race. Efforts to improve the human race through bettering housing facilities and other environmental conditions are known as euthenics.
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. See also parent and childparent and child,
legal relationship, created by biological (birth) relationship or by adoption, that confers certain rights and duties on parent and child; in some states the courts have given the nonbiological, nonadoptive partner of a parent standing as a parent in a legal
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.

artificial insemination

[¦ärd·ə¦fish·əl in‚sem·ə′nā·shən]
(medicine)
A process by which spermatozoa are collected from males and deposited in female genitalia by instruments rather than by natural service.

artificial insemination

introduction of spermatozoa into the vagina or uterus by means other than sexual union
References in periodicals archive ?
Another female bottlenose dolphin at Kamogawa Sea World is due to give birth in September to a calf conceived from artificial insemination, the official said.
Artificial insemination by donor has provided a genuine miracle for many childless couples but critics believe that this latest development goes too far.
The Hokkaido Guide Dogs for the Blind Association conducted artificial insemination of a female guide dog, using sperm of another guide dog, for the first time in Japan.
Made for the CBC's The Nature of Things, his film about his search for the man who fathered him through artificial insemination, has a wonderfully light touch; and his elaborately drawn diagrams of family trees and DNA samples have an almost cartoon--like quality.
The court found that the policy of treating men and women inmates equally to the extent possible would not be implicated by allowing a male prisoner to provide semen to his spouse for artificial insemination, and that arguments that women prisoners would assert their Equal Protection rights did not justify denying the male prisoner his right to procreate.
A roughly 1 billion yen technical assistance project in Indonesia in the late 1980s, in which dairy cows were bred using artificial insemination, faltered after six seed bulls sent from Japan died, Japanese government sources said Wednesday.
A lioness at the Tama Zoological Park in Hino, western Tokyo, has given birth to a cub through artificial insemination using frozen sperm for the first time in Japan, the zoo confirmed Monday.
It's as if Uncle Sam strictly regulated calves conceived through artificial insemination while winking at those spawned through traditional bovine lovemaking.
The Pope also criticized a proposal in Italy that would allow Italian women to use sperm from a man other than her partner to become pregnant through artificial insemination.
Jodie (right), who gave birth to a son, Charlie, on Monday after undergoing artificial insemination, wants her dressing room specially adapted so she can take him on set when filming begins next year.
The weight imbalance - plus low fertility of heavy, broad-breasted turkey lines - has prompted almost complete integration of artificial insemination into commercial production.
In Babies in Waiting, 1996, for example, they photographed a man spitting into a tool meant to preserve sperm for artificial insemination.

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