artificial languages


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artificial languages,

languages that are invented by one or more human beings as opposed to languages that develop naturally among peoples. Examples of artificial languages are Volapük, EsperantoEsperanto
, an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent.
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, and IdoIdo
, short name of Esperandido, an artificial language that is a simplified version of Esperanto. See international language.
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. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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.

Artificial Languages

 

special languages that, unlike natural languages, are constructed purposefully; they are used for performing certain functions of a natural language in data processing systems. There are two types of artificial languages: information languages and international auxiliary languages.

The idea for the creation of an international language arose in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the gradually decreasing international role of Latin. The initial schemes were aimed mainly at the development of a rational language, free from the logical inconsistencies of living languages and based on the logical classification of concepts. Schemes imitating patterns and material of living languages also appeared later. The first such scheme was Volapük, which was created in 1880 by the German linguist J. Schleyer. Esperanto, the only artificial language to be used on a large scale and to attract active proponents of an international language, became the best-known artificial language. A considerable number of translated and even original literary works exists in Esperanto. Of the later artificial languages, the best known are Occidental (Interlingue), created by E. de Wahl (Estonia) in 1922; Novial, created by O. Jespersen (Denmark) in 1928; and Interlingua, created by the Italian mathematician G. Peano in 1908 and the International Auxiliary Language Association in New York under the direction of A. Gode in 1950.

Artificial international language schemes may be divided into the following groups according to their structure: (1) a priori languages, based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts (Ro and Solresol); (2) mixed languages, based partly on words borrowed from various languages and partly on artificially invented words (Volapük); and (3) languages constructed primarily on the basis of an international vocabulary (Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua).

E. A. BOKAREV

References in periodicals archive ?
To create the artificial languages in her studies, Gomez mimics structure in natural language that may be useful in language learning.
If the hypothesis is correct, quantificational domains are fixed in fundamentally different ways in natural languages and in standard artificial languages.
The adult learners who had had little to no exposure to languages with word orders different from those in English quite easily learned the artificial languages that had word orders commonly found in the world's languages but failed to learn Verblog.
Rosenfelder sets out a template for anyone who wants to create artificial languages for a fantasy or alien world, as a hobby, or as an interlanguage.
Part II addresses two broad concerns: 1) Tolkien's beliefs concerning the genetic and symbolist nature of language, and 2) the influence of universal, artificial languages and phonetic alphabets on Tolkien's own invented languages.
He adds provocative remarks about the early development of the use of artificial languages within India, as well as many asides in many other directions.
Language, Mind and Nature: Artificial Languages in England from Bacon to Locke.
With an eye towards automated code generation rather than intensive programming, the advanced textbook extends linguistics to artificial languages, explores the cognitive model of internal information presentation in the brain, introduces the generic rules and theories of abstract systems, applies decision theory to engineering management, and provides a framework for optimal allocation of labor, resources, and schedules.
Concluding with lectures on Black English, "language death", and artificial languages, Professor McWhorter ends with his lecture series with "Finale--Master Class".
While there have been other artificial languages, and other languages crafted for fictional beings, Klingon is one of the rare times when a trained linguist has been called upon to create a language for aliens.
Other artificial languages are Volapuk, Ido and Glosa, a grammar-free international language based on Latin and Greek.
It is clear that there are artificial languages that have been deliberately created, in probably most cases closely following the lexicons and grammars of European languages, as with Esperanto, though in other cases departing far from these norms, as in the case of Klingon, created for the Klingons (a group of extraterrestrials) in the series Star Trek and its successors and the subject of a substantial cult following.