artificial languages


Also found in: Idioms.

artificial languages,

languages that are invented by one or more human beings as opposed to languages that develop naturally among peoples. Examples of artificial languages are Volapük, EsperantoEsperanto
, an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent.
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, and IdoIdo
, short name of Esperandido, an artificial language that is a simplified version of Esperanto. See international language.
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. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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.

Artificial Languages

 

special languages that, unlike natural languages, are constructed purposefully; they are used for performing certain functions of a natural language in data processing systems. There are two types of artificial languages: information languages and international auxiliary languages.

The idea for the creation of an international language arose in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the gradually decreasing international role of Latin. The initial schemes were aimed mainly at the development of a rational language, free from the logical inconsistencies of living languages and based on the logical classification of concepts. Schemes imitating patterns and material of living languages also appeared later. The first such scheme was Volapük, which was created in 1880 by the German linguist J. Schleyer. Esperanto, the only artificial language to be used on a large scale and to attract active proponents of an international language, became the best-known artificial language. A considerable number of translated and even original literary works exists in Esperanto. Of the later artificial languages, the best known are Occidental (Interlingue), created by E. de Wahl (Estonia) in 1922; Novial, created by O. Jespersen (Denmark) in 1928; and Interlingua, created by the Italian mathematician G. Peano in 1908 and the International Auxiliary Language Association in New York under the direction of A. Gode in 1950.

Artificial international language schemes may be divided into the following groups according to their structure: (1) a priori languages, based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts (Ro and Solresol); (2) mixed languages, based partly on words borrowed from various languages and partly on artificially invented words (Volapük); and (3) languages constructed primarily on the basis of an international vocabulary (Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua).

E. A. BOKAREV

References in periodicals archive ?
Stillman, The new philosophy and universal languages in seventeenth-century England: Bacon, Hobbes, and Wilkins (1995); Rhodri Lewis, Language, mind and nature: Artificial languages in England from Bacon to Locke (2007); A discussion of Wilkins's Essay as an example of a dictionary of English language is presented in Werner Hullen's English dictionaries, 800-1700: The topical tradition (1999).
There is much to commend as she traces language decay in Tolkien's 1937 linguistic account of his artificial languages, The Lhammas.
But the motivation for an artificial language was not solely scholarly--many radical Protestants, and some less-radical ones, believed that an artificial language would help to restore man to the linguistic position he had held before the Fall.
Four artificial languages that differed only in the stress pattern on their words were used.
I do not want to criticize here the naive attempts to create artificial languages in detail but only on the spur of the moment.
Concluding with lectures on Black English, "language death", and artificial languages, Professor McWhorter ends with his lecture series with "Finale--Master Class".
Other artificial languages are Volapuk, Ido and Glosa, a grammar-free international language based on Latin and Greek.
It is clear that there are artificial languages that have been deliberately created, in probably most cases closely following the lexicons and grammars of European languages, as with Esperanto, though in other cases departing far from these norms, as in the case of Klingon, created for the Klingons (a group of extraterrestrials) in the series Star Trek and its successors and the subject of a substantial cult following.
119) are representative of the artificial languages that flaw twentieth-century music.
More visual, but equally a one-shot joke, is Tony Kemplen's Polyglot, in which a classroom of animated parrots flap their wings as they repeat the names of artificial languages like Volapuk, Ido and Esperanto, created in a singularly unsuccessful attempt to simplify international communication.
In this sense, artificial languages have already partially displaced natural languages as the means for storing and representing human knowledge.