arts and crafts


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Related to arts and crafts: Arts and Crafts Movement

arts and crafts,

term for that general field of applied design in which hand fabrication is dominant. The term was coined in England in the late 19th cent. as a label for the then-current movement directed toward the revivifying of the decorative arts. The chief influence behind this movement was William MorrisMorris, William,
1834–96, English poet, artist, craftsman, designer, social reformer, and printer. He has long been considered one of the great Victorians and has been called the greatest English designer of the 19th cent.
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. By the mid-19th cent., factory processes had almost entirely driven artisans from their ancient trades and threatened to obliterate the techniques they used to produce beautiful objects of utility. The Gothic revivalGothic revival,
term designating a return to the building styles of the Middle Ages. Although the Gothic revival was practiced throughout Europe, it attained its greatest importance in the United States and England.
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, however, had brought into existence a great body of knowledge concerning the arts of the Middle Ages, and Morris, together with the Pre-RaphaelitePre-Raphaelites
, brotherhood of English painters and poets formed in 1848 in protest against what they saw as the low standards and decadence of British art. The principal founders were D. G. Rossetti, W.
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 painters and a small group of architects and designers, returned to these arts as a rich source of inspiration.

The pupils and followers of Morris multiplied, and proficient artisans developed. Their methods aimed at a practical demonstration not only of Morris's aesthetic creed but also of his ideas concerning socialism and the moral need for integrating beauty with the accessories of daily life. The aesthetic and political aspects of the arts and crafts movement influenced the development of modernism, particularly as they were later reflected in the core philosophy of the BauhausBauhaus
, artists' collective and school of art and architecture in Germany (1919–33). The Bauhaus revolutionized art training by combining the teaching of classic arts with the study of crafts.
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. The revival of folk arts has continued to prosper in some quarters, especially in remote communities and among Native Americans of the Southwest and the Eskimos (see North American Native ArtNorth American Native art,
diverse traditional arts of Native North Americans. In recent years Native American arts have become commodities collected and marketed by nonindigenous Americans and Europeans.
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).

A less aestheticized version of the arts and crafts movement was important in the United States, where it spread from England and flourished from the late 19th cent. to about 1915. It was prominent in American architecture and design, notably in the buildings and interiors of Greene and GreeneGreene and Greene,
architectural firm working in the American arts and crafts style, formed by the brothers Charles Sumner Greene, 1868–1957, and Henry Mather Greene, 1870–1954, both b. Brighton (now part of Cincinnati), Ohio.
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 and in the "mission-style" oak furniture of Gustav StickleyStickley, Gustav,
1858–1942, American furniture designer, b. Osceola, Wis. Probably the best-known American associated with the arts and crafts movement, Stickley ran a Binghamton, N.Y., chair factory in the 1880s.
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 (1858–1942) and his contemporaries. The movement's precepts were also applied to ceramics, glassware, utensils, and other objects of American daily life. The arts and crafts movement also spread to continental Europe, where it was quite influential during the late 19th and early 20th cent.

References in periodicals archive ?
These 44 persons were asked about their levels of arts and crafts involvement--the survey presented respondents with a list of 23 arts and crafts activities--from childhood to early adult to mature adult, and also about how many patents they've been granted, articles they've published, and companies they've founded.
In addressing the question of the Arts and Crafts as a 'social movement', one is immediately confronted by the seemingly paradoxical position of William Morris, who while being its chief progenitor was also unexpectedly sceptical about its aims.
In Scandinavia and eastern parts of the Habsburg empire, each nation was searching for cultural identity, and the Arts and Crafts reverence for the past seemed important in relating tradition to modernity.
In addition, Meawasige would like to expand the business by wholesaling some of the authentic First Nation arts and crafts.
In October, two private equity firms, Bain Capital and Blackstone Group, paid $6 billion for Michaels Stores, the nation's largest arts and crafts retail chain.
It continues in the belief that architecture is for everyone: the English tradition of architectural criticism, which from Pugin, through Ruskin, Morris, the Arts and Crafts, and the British branch of the Modern Movement, has emphasised the proposal that architecture has a moral role - literally every line you draw will have an effect on someone's life.
Olbrich's other buildings on the site have a much wilder mixture of ingredients: Austrian Sezession is blended with Belgian and French Art Nouveau and made occasionally astringent by the odd dash of the Arts and Crafts to form one of the strangest of early twentieth-century architectural experiments.
Festival: Features food booths, children's entertainment, wall-climbing for teens, arts and crafts, and more.
The arts and crafts fairs we hold are venues where people can purchase unique, handmade items and where vendors and crafts people can show off their incredible skills,'' said Nicki Voss Stern, arts and events program coordinator for the city.
as well as bewitching arts and crafts at each resort's signature Cub Club activity room, plus spooktacular story time in the Grand Lobby and more.
And in that, ``The Arts and Crafts Movement in Europe and America, 1880-1920: Design for the Modern World'' attempts to make an important new statement itself.
The two also find time to travel to arts and crafts shows all over the United States and Canada.
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