The ash falls
from the eruptions caused damage totaling an estimated 6.
Mr Benediktsson said: " Naturally, various questions arise following such disasters concerning the effects of ash fall
, potential evacuation of livestock, transportation, insurance issues and food supplies.
The evidence of high degasification, the absence of co-ignimbrite ash fall
deposits and the restriction of crystals to the matrix while they're absent in pumice fragments, could signify a boiling over process, but it could also be the result of a small column collapse.
In 2002, for example, rain combined with ash fall
alone caused economic losses of around US $960 million after the eruption of Mount Etna in Sicily.
At the foot of the volcano, authorities allowed some of the 1,500 people who evacuated the town of Ensenada to return temporarily to their homes to carry out belongings and clean up damage from the heavy ash fall
Researchers used simulation software called Ash3d that forecasts ash fall
by applying global wind patterns to data from historical eruptions.
85 million people in the three prefectures will be affected by the expected 2 cm or more volcanic ash fall
The powerful earthquakes, poisonous ash fall
, tsunami and disruptive weather patterns which accompanied the Thera eruption severely impacted every society in the eastern Mediterranean.
Nearby towns of Mayskoye and Kozyrevsk have been affected by volcanic ash fall
, but no human casualties have been recorded
We think that, around 579 million years ago, an underwater 'nursery' of baby Ediacaran fronds was overwhelmed, Pompeii-style, by an ash fall
from a volcanic eruption on a nearby island that smothered and preserved them for posterity," he added.
Roberta Hamme, a researcher with Canada's University of Victoria, suggests in a recent study published in Geophysical Research Letters that the ash fall
from the eruption of Alaska's Kasatochi volcano in 2008 may be one reason for the huge 2010 run.
The ban on flights since the ash fall
has large implications for employers' payroll departments.