aspirin


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Related to aspirin: Paracetamol, Baby aspirin

aspirin,

acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylatesalicylate
, any of a group of analgesics, or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin,
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) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and arthritis. Aspirin is believed to act against fever, pain, and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandinsprostaglandin
, any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue.
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 in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke in persons with cardiovascular disease and to control unstable angina. The drug's usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also under investigation.

Normal dosage may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. Aspirin also has been linked to the development of Reye's syndrome (a combination of acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of internal organs) in children who have taken it for viral infections. Acetaminophenacetaminophen
, an analgesic and fever-reducing medicine. It is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines, including Tylenol and Midol. Introduced in the early 1900s, acetaminophen is a coal tar derivative that acts by interfering with the synthesis of
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 (Tylenol), which does not cause gastric irritation but does lower fever and relieve pain, is often substituted for aspirin.

Aspirin, although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. Acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by the German chemist Felix Hoffmann, an employee of Friedrich Bayer & Co., in 1897. It is now the active ingredient in many over-the-counter preparations; estimates put American consumption at 80 billion tablets annually.

See analgesicanalgesic
, any of a diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. Analgesic drugs include the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, acetaminophen, narcotic drugs such as morphine, and synthetic drugs with morphinelike action such as meperidine
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.

aspirin

[′as·prən]
(organic chemistry)

aspirin

1. a white crystalline compound widely used in the form of tablets to relieve pain and fever, to reduce inflammation, and to prevent strokes. Formula: CH3COOC6H4COOH
2. a tablet of aspirin

Aspirin

(language, tool)
A freeware language from MITRE Corporation for the description of neural networks. A compiler, bpmake, is included. Aspirin is designed for use with the MIGRAINES interface.

Version: 6.0, as of 1995-03-08.

ftp://ftp.cognet.ucla.edu/alexis/.
References in periodicals archive ?
Professor Peter Naredi, the ECCO scientific co-chair of the Congress, who was not involved in the research, commented: "We have good evidence that the frequent use of aspirin in the population can prevent some cases of colorectal cancer.
7 percent, were resistant to aspirin in this study.
Patients who received aspirin inappropriately were younger, with a mean age of 58 years, versus a mean age of 66 years in patients who received aspirin appropriately.
More research is needed to prove a positive link - and you should never combine aspirin with antidepressants without first consulting your doctor.
Yet "if you looked at the folks from the study that were low for 15-PGDH,they did not benefit at all from taking aspirin.
In a study of more than 900 patients with colorectal cancer, taking aspirin improved survival in patients with tumors that contained a mutation in the PIK3CA gene.
However, the prevalence of aspirin resistance by this test is lower than other assays.
1093/jnci/djs318) "Daily Aspirin Use and Cancer Mortality in a Large US Cohort.
It is the first time a trial such as this has been undertaken and the findings suggest aspirin treatment could prevent up to 10,000 cancers over the next 30 years and possibly save 1,000 lives.
Scientists are stopping short of urging healthy people to take aspirin, which is known to increase the risk of internal bleeding.
We are very pleased that these study findings support our belief that PL 2200 may offer a significantly GI safer aspirin product to the tens of millions Americans who rely on aspirin for its various health benefits and the many more that need these product attributes," stated Ron Zimmerman, president and chief executive officer of PLx Pharma.
Aspirin use after the diagnosis of stage I-III breast cancer was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer death and distant recurrence, results from the ongoing Nurses' Health Study demonstrated.